MODULE 2: How and why did the Nazi party come to power in 1923? PART 2

HideShow resource information
What were the key aims of the Nazi party set out in their 25-point programme?
•revision of TofV(strip Article 231) •ending of reparations •citizenship only given to those of German blood •Lebensraum for German people •creation of strong government •war profiteering to be made criminal offence •divide large department stores
1 of 37
What did the creation of the SA mean?
They were involved in widespread political violence. Some started violence & then Hitler sent more to stop it to create image they were disciplined & stable.
2 of 37
What were Nazi tactics initially?
•Putschism (violent seizure of power) •Munich Putsch
3 of 37
What happened to the policy of putschism after 1925?
•It was not favoured •The Nazis became a political party •New policy of legality •Not everyone agreed though & there was internal friction until Hitler re-established his supremacy in Feb 1926
4 of 37
What was the state of the Nazi party when Hitler came out of prison and how did he solve this?
•It was in disarray •Its leading members were split into factions & membership was in decline •Hitler re-established his supremacy & the Party was to be run according to the Führerprinzip •party was reorganised into centralised, bureaucratic entity
5 of 37
When the Nazi party reverted to becoming a political party in 1925 where did its strengths lie?
•'Local organisation'- strong local leaders • 'Powerful paramilitary force' (storm troopers/SA) •'Broad Policy' appealed to resentments of defeated Germans
6 of 37
What role did Hitler play in the Nazis becoming the largest party in Weimar Germany?
•head of the Nazis •key piece of propaganda •oversaw organisations •preached extreme message •involved in setting out 25-point programme •organised & led key events (e.g. Munich putsch) •reorganised Nazi Party- Führerprinzip & political approach
7 of 37
How well organised were the Nazis in becoming the largest party in Weimar Germany?
•orginally: well organised,largely insignificant party, few opposing parties, increasing membership •Hitler was imprisoned: internal friction •Hitler's release: reorganised party- political, broad policy, powerful paramilitary force
8 of 37
How important were the SA and the role played by violence in the Nazis becoming the largest party in Weimar Germany?
•they started fights •more SA 'broke up' the fights to make Nazis appear safe & disciplined
9 of 37
Who supported the Nazis in becoming the largest party in Weimar Germany?
•citizens struck by poverty (war & inflation) •citizens who felt betrayed ('Nov Criminals') •'nationalist' & 'socialist' defeated Germans who resented strict TofV terms, failing economy & poor living conditions •farmers & working class citizens
10 of 37
Why did people support the Nazis as they were becoming the largest party in Weimar Germany?
•the Nazis made promises that appealed to many people suffering through life with little support from the struggling Weimar government •Nazis adapted broad polices & promises
11 of 37
How many Presidential decree laws were there and what does this mean?
1930= 5, 1931= 44 1932= 66. Hindenburg pushed through authoritarian regime.
12 of 37
How many Reichstag laws were there and what does this mean?
1930= 98, 1931= 34, 1932= 5. President abused powers more in 1932.
13 of 37
How many Reichstag: days sitting were there and what does this mean?
1930= 94, 1931= 42, 1932= 13. The role of the President became dictatorial as Reichstag was conferred with less and less.
14 of 37
What were the long term problems facing the Parliamentary government?
•Treaty of Versailles •Reparations •Demilitarisation •Loss of land, industry & population •Weimar Constitution •Isolated from Europe •Opposition from Left and Right
15 of 37
What happened to Nazi's votes between 1924 and 1933?
They had the largest increase in votes: 1924= 32, 1933= 288
16 of 37
What happened to DDP's votes between 1919 and 1933?
They had the greatest decrease in votes. 1919= 75, 1924= 2, 1933= 5
17 of 37
What happened to DNVP's votes between 1924 and 1933?
1924= 95, 1933= 52
18 of 37
What happened to DVP's votes between 1924 and 1933?
1924= 45, 1933= 2
19 of 37
What happened to the Centre Party's votes between 1924 and 1933?
1924= 65, 1933= 74
20 of 37
What happened to SDP's votes between 1924 and 1933?
1924= 100, 1933= 120
21 of 37
What happened to USDP's votes between 1924 and 1933?
1924= -, 1933= -
22 of 37
What happened to KPD's votes between 1924 and 1933?
1924= 4, 1933= 81
23 of 37
What is 'Back Stairs intrigue'?
•Hindenburg's policy •meeting between Von Papen & Hitler •mid-Jan: Hindenburg lost confidence in Von Schleicher •Schleicher resigned Jan 28 1933 •Hitler= chancellor Jan 30 1933
24 of 37
What are arguments against 'Back Stairs intrigue'?
•Nazis projected powerful image of dynamism & energy •Nazis had vague programme- allowed voters to read into it how they wished •1932 elections- Nazis launched massive campaign: Hitler would save Germany •Hitler- major impact from delivering speeches
25 of 37
What did all 3 chancellorships want to do?
Re-order the Weimar Parliamentary system into a more authoritarian form of government
26 of 37
What were the differences between Bruning, von Papen & von Schleicher? PART 1
•Bruning→ prepared to accept greater role for Reichstag & tried to work with them, position weakened by fact he was unprepared to cooperate with the ever-growing Nazi Party
27 of 37
What were the differences between Bruning, von Papen & von Schleicher? PART 2
•von Papen→ most hostile to the Reichstag, his government of 'barons' had no hope of getting their support •von Schleicher→ tried to develop a more broad based government- trade unions as well as the Nazis
28 of 37
What happened during Bruning's 2 year chancellorship?
•support was falling- lucky to be appointed •appointed through intrigue amongst the elite •was underestimated •became victim of political intrigue •illustrates key role of depression & shows Hindenburg's hostility to SPD •last truly parliamentary gov
29 of 37
How did Hitler become Chancellor?
•gained support of the elites who persuaded Hindenburg he was right choice for Chancellor •key industrialists & landowners were concerned over lack of effective government- they thought an authoritarian gov could be established through Nazis
30 of 37
What tactics were involved when appointing Hitler?
•making him vice-chancellor •making him chancellor with Papen as vice-chancellor & surrounded by other conservatives: Hindenburg agreed against own judgement •Papen commented 'we've hired him'
31 of 37
What were the long-term problems facing the Weimar Regime?
•Nature of Weimar Regime: limited nature of 1918 Revolution, Proportional Representation, Article 48 •TofV: territorial losses, reparations, disarmament, allied occupation •Opposition from Left & Right: revolts (1919-23), 1924-8 potential armed opposition
32 of 37
What helped Hitler's rise?
•Growth of Nazis (up to 37% 1932) •Opposition from the elites (growing support for more authoritarian system) •Weak democratic centre (DVP, DDP lose support) •Reichstag (1932: no majority support for parliamentary government) •Growth of KPD (up to 17% 193
33 of 37
What were the possiblee outcomes of the Weimar Regime in crisis 1929-3?
•Communist state •Continuation of parliamentary democracy •more authoritarian system, e.g. a restored monarchy •Nazi dictatorship
34 of 37
What are some historian's quotes as to why the Weimar failed?
•Kershaw: "world economic crisis form 1929" •Geary: "terms of the Treaty of Versailles" •Hiden: "No single problem" •Jackel: "origins"→ "social and political structure" •Raff: "Allies' lack of sympathy"
35 of 37
What are Geary's quotes as to why Hitler was appointed Chancellor?
•"Weimar Republic failed to build on the fundamental compromises" and "lost the struggle for the hearts and minds of the people" •"economic crisis" acted as a trigger for the "abandonment of a political system"
36 of 37
What are Ardagh's and Kolb's quotes as to why Hitler was appointed Chancellor?
•Ardagh: "Germans were losing faith" in "parliamentary democracy" •Kolb: "circumstances of its of foundation" → parliamentary democracy was "defended by only a minority of the population"
37 of 37

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did the creation of the SA mean?

Back

They were involved in widespread political violence. Some started violence & then Hitler sent more to stop it to create image they were disciplined & stable.

Card 3

Front

What were Nazi tactics initially?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened to the policy of putschism after 1925?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the state of the Nazi party when Hitler came out of prison and how did he solve this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The rise of Germany 1871 – 1945 resources »