MODULE 2: How and why did the Nazi party come to power in 1923?

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What was the Weimar identified with to all Germans?
The 'Stab in the Back'. They were blamed for accepting the TofV and were labelled as traitors responsible for losing the war.
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What did the government of Ebert have to deal with?
•lack of enthusiasm •hostility •reluctance •labelled as traitors •blamed for defeat & accepting TofV •impoverished & resentful Germany •extreme Left & Right Wing threats •democratic gov unsuitable to German political way of thinking
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What was strengthened even through military defeat?
German Unity and State Power.
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What is Phase 1 of the history of the Weimar Republic?
Precarious Existence.
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What is Phase 2 of the history of the Weimar Republic?
Obstinate Resistance.
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What is Phase 3 of the history of the Weimar Republic?
Fulfilment.
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What is Phase 4 of the history of the Weimar Republic?
Fatalistic Depression.
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What problems did Bruning have to deal with when he came into power and how did he propose to deal with them?
•Nazi villainy •German's imagination •ailing German economy (reforms, taxes & sacrifices) •attempted the abandonment of the Young Plan schedule of payments •economic crisis
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What was Article 48?
The key emergency powers which enabled the issue of legislation by Presidential decree. 'The Reich President may take the necessary measures for restoring law and order'.
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How was Article 48 used?
July 1930- Bruning cut government expenditure, wages & unemployment pay (after Wall Street Crash)- used by Hindenburg as Reichstag didn't agree •dissolved Reichstag on 18 July •April 1932- Bruning banned SA and SS across Germany
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How did Hitler use Article 48?
In 1933 he established a virtual dictatorship.
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Why was 1931 ghastly?
•Bruning government- most unpopular gov ever in Germany •of dictatorship of Right •increased civil violence •Nazis gaining supports through promises to vulnerable •Bruning made frontal attack through emergency decrees •runs of banks- folded
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How did Bruning and Hindenburg's beliefs differ?
Bruning- scheme for monarchist restoration/ Hindenburg- rigid, conscience & senile • Hindenburg- fear of communism/ Bruning- association of planned reforms •Bruning- plan to break up vast landed estates in Prussia & get city families to work on
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How did Bruning's chancellorship end?
Bruning campaigned avidly to get Von Hindenburg reelected but it subjected Hindenburg to vile insults from the Nationalists. The German Crown Prince denounced him & campaigned for Hitler. Hindenburg blamed Bruning & basically encouraged him to resign
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When and what was the Treaty of Rapollo?
1922 •between Germany and the Soviet Union negotiated by Rathenau & Chicherin •Reestablished normal relations between the two nations •cancelled all financial claims against each other •Strengthened economic & military ties •angered the Western Allies
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What was the Ebert-Groener Pact?
•agreement between Ebert (Social Democrat) & Groener (Quartermaster G=General of the German army) on November 10 1918 •Assure Ebert loyalty of the armed forces as he promised to call a national assembly & take prompt action against leftist uprisings
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What did Ebert promise in the Ebert-Groener Pact & what were the positive and negative results?
•military command remained with professional officers •military would retain its traditional "state with the state" status +gave gov means to defeat Left-wing threats -military= largely self-governing institution -Weimar Republic= dependent on leadership
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What were the positives of the economic situation in Germany between 1925 and 1929?
•high German interest rates attracted American investments •1928 production levels= 1913 levels •growing number of cartels= lower industry costs •1925-29 exports rose by 40% • improved social welfare provision •unemployment insurance •state subsidies
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What were the negatives of the economic situation in Germany between 1925 and 1929?
•1926- production declined •1929- unemployed workers averaged 1.9 million •hyperinflation-> less enthusiasm to invest •dependent on foreign investment •income decline reduced spending power •protective tariffs -hindered German exports
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When was and what happened on Black Tuesday?
29 October 1929- Wall Street Crash •value of American shares on New York stock market collapsed •American companies went bankrupt •demand for German imports dried up •banks called in loans upon which most of German industry was dependent
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How was Germany affected by the slump?
•had to return loans •had to cut back on production •1932- industrial production had dropped to 40% of 1929 level •increased bankruptcies •unemployment rose (Jan 1932- 6.1 million) •younger unemployed joined Nazis/ Communists •limited social security
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How does Robert Boyce describe the situation in Germany and why?
"The third global catastrophe of the century"
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What was negative about the situation for farmers between 1925 and 1929?
•farmers faced falling incomes •income per head of agriculture was 44% below the national average •agricultural depression in 1927 which deepened after the Crash--> widespread rural poverty
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What evidence is there that the slump weakened parliamentary democracy?
•unemployment increased from 1.3 million in 1929 to 5.7 million in 1932 •KPD vote in Reichstag elections= 3 million in 1928, 5.2 million in Jan 1932, 6.1 million in Nov 1932,
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What evidence is there that the slump weakened parliamentary democracy (Nazi related)?
•Nazi vote in Reichstag elections= 0.9 million in 1928 •Nazi vote in Reichstag elections= 13.5 million in 1932 •Nazi vote in Reichstag elections= 11.7 million in Nov 1932
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What is the Intentionalist school of thought?
•Great Man view of history •history shaped by events of powerful individual •based on personality & behaviour of individuals
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What is the Intentionalist view on what part Hitler had to play in the Nazi's rise to power?
•Hitler- dominant figure •Hugh Trevor Roper- 'Hitler was the complete master of Nazi Germany' •failure of Weimar- due to behaviour of certain individuals •Hitler benefitted most from downfall
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What is the Structuralist school of thought?
•very critical of the Intentionalist approach •important to consider other factors than personality and actions
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What is the Structuralist view on what part Hitler had to play in the Nazi's rise to power?
•Hitler was by no means a dominant figure •argue the structure of the Nazi party and the political, economical social and military structures of Weimar Republic need to be considered •Hitler played key role but need to consider other factors
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What is the Marxist school of thought and name some individual example?
•believe economic factors rather than individuals shape history •Robert Boyce •William Kahr
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What is the Marxist view on what part Hitler had to play in the Nazi's rise to power?
•downplay Hitler's role •wealthy capitalists backed Hitler because they were worried about the threat German Communists would pose to capitalism & business •big business helped Hitler so he may act like an agent of capitalism
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What is the Intentionalist argument on the Nazi's rise to power?
•Hitler took all political decisions •Hitler was a clever schemer which developed the political system after 1933 •Layton argues that Hitler deliberately created a policy of divide and rule which led to chaos
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What is the Structuralist argument on the Nazi's rise to power?
•Hitler was poor leader •Hitler did not actively intervene in government •Hitler made gov chaotic through withdrawal •Edward Peterson challenged notion of Hitler as strong dictator- confusion, competition & rivalry •Broszat- 'Polycratic State'.
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What is the Modern argument on the Nazi's rise to power?
•Hitler had limits on his power, he was not invincible •The structure of the Third Reich was complex • Hitler relied on his henchmen for help •All power rested with Hitler but he only took decisions when absolutely necessary
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What are Modern individual's argument on the Nazi's rise to power?
Fulbrook- combine aspects of both sides of debate & said Nazi state= Polycratic- Hitler's actions •Kershaw: 'middle way'- Hitler's actions were 'indispensable to explaining course of development of Third Reich' but not 'adequate explanation' itself
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What did the government of Ebert have to deal with?

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•lack of enthusiasm •hostility •reluctance •labelled as traitors •blamed for defeat & accepting TofV •impoverished & resentful Germany •extreme Left & Right Wing threats •democratic gov unsuitable to German political way of thinking

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What was strengthened even through military defeat?

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Card 4

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What is Phase 1 of the history of the Weimar Republic?

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What is Phase 2 of the history of the Weimar Republic?

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