Module 2- Electrons, bonding and structure

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First ionisation energy of an element
The energy required to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of each gaseous atom
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Electron shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces net attractive force from the positive nucleus to the outer shell electrons
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Successive ionisation energy
A measure of energy required to remove each electron in turn
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Shell
A group of atomic orbitals with the same principle quantum number (n). or energy levels
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Principal quantum number (n)
A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital which increases with the distance from the nucleus
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Atomic orbital
A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons in opposite spins
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Sub-shell
A group of the same type of atomic orbital (s,p,d,f) within a shell
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Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electron in an atom
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Compound
A substance formed by two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio, shown by their chemical formula
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Ionic bond
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Giant Ionic lattice
A three-dimensional structure formed of oppositely charged ions held by strong ionic bonds
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Group
A vertical column in the periodic table were the elements have similar properties to each other and their atoms have the same number of electrons in their outershells
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Covalent Bond
A bond formed by a shared pair of atom.
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Lone pair
An outer-shell pair of electrons that are not involved in the chemical bonding
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Dative covalent/coordinated bond
A shared pair of electrons which have come from the same bonded atom
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Electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom from a pair of bonded electrons in a covalent bond
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Permanent dipole
A small difference in charge between a bond that results in a difference in the electronegativity between the bond
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Polar covalent bond
A permanent dipole
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Polar molecules
An overall dipole when you take into account any dipole across the bond
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Intermolecular force
An attraction force between neighboring molecules
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Permanent dipole-dipole force
A weak intermolecular force between permanent dipoles in neighboring polar molecules
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Hydrogen bond
A strong inter-molecular between an electron-deficiant hydrogen atom and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule.
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Van der waals forces
A intermolecular force between induced dipoles in neighboring molecules
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Metallic bonding
The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and a sea of delocalised electrons
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Delocalised electrons
Electrons shared between more than two atoms
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Giant metallic lattice
A three-dimensional structure formed of positive metal ions and delocalised electrons bonded by strong metallic bonds
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Simple molecular lattice
A three-dimensional structure formed by molecules bonded by weak intermolecular forces
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Giant covalent lattice
A three-dimensional structure formed by atoms bonded together by strong covalent bonds
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Second ionisation energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form 2+ ions
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Valence shell
Electrons in the outer-most shell
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Core electrons
Electrons in the inner electron shells
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Element
A pure chemical substance with only one type of atom
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Molecule
A chemical substance with two or more types of atom
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Molecular ion
The positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule loses an electron
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Dipole-dipole forces
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
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Ion
A positively or negatively charged atoms or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (in a molecular ion)
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Cation
A positively charged ion
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Anion
A negatively charged ion
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Card 2

Front

The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces net attractive force from the positive nucleus to the outer shell electrons

Back

Electron shielding

Card 3

Front

A measure of energy required to remove each electron in turn

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A group of atomic orbitals with the same principle quantum number (n). or energy levels

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital which increases with the distance from the nucleus

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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