Module2: biotechnology and gene technology

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Vegetative propagation
refers to the production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms.These offsprings contain the same genetic information as the parent and so are clones of the parent
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Tissue culture
refers to the speration of cells of any tissue type and their growth in or on a nutrient medium.In plants the undifferentiated callus tissue is grown in nutrients medium containing plant hormones that stimulate develpoment of the complete plant
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Cloned
animal isone that has been produced using the samegentic information as another animal. Such an animal has the same genotype as the donor organism.
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Biotechnology
is technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or biological processes to improve agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and inustry
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Culture
is a growth of microorganisms. This may be a singe species or a mixture of species. Microorganisma can be culture in a liquid such as nutient broth or on a solid surfave such as nutrient agar gel.
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Immobilisation
of enzymes refers to any technique where enzyme molecules are held, seperated from the reaction mixture. Substrate moleules can bind to the enzyme molecules and the products formed go back into the reaction mixture leaving enzyme molecules in place
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Genomics
refers to the study of th whole set of genetic information in the form of the DNA base sequences that occur in the cells of organisms of a particular species. The seeuenced genomes of organisms are placed on public access databases
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Electrophoresis
is similar to chromatography. Seperation of the different lengths of DNA fragments, in a mixture, is achieved becuase as negatively charged fragments move towards the positive electrode, shorter fragments mass through the gel more easily and quickly
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Primers
are short, single-stranded sequences of DNA, arounf 10-20 bases long. They are needed in sequencing reactions and polmerase chain reactions to bind to a section of DNA because the DNA polymerase enzyme cannot bind directly to single-stranded DNA
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Sticky ends
is formed when DNA is cut using a reaction enzyme. It is a short run of unpaired, exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section. Complementary sticky ends can anneal as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
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Transgenic
when an organism contains DNA that has been added to its cell as a result of genetic engineering
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Golden rice is said to be Biofortified
because it contains higherthannormal concentrations of a particularnutrient in this case beta-carotene
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GMO
an organism that has undergone genetic engineering is a genetically modified organism.
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Transgenic
organism has recived an allele of a gne from another organism, often of a different species
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Lipoosomes
small sphere of lipid bilayer containing a functioning allele. They can pass through the lipid bilayer of cells and therefore act as vectorsto carrythe allele into the cell
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Xenotransplantation
refers totransplantation of cell tissues or organs between animals of different species
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Allotransplantation
refers to transplantation between animals of the same species
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Card 2

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Tissue culture

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refers to the speration of cells of any tissue type and their growth in or on a nutrient medium.In plants the undifferentiated callus tissue is grown in nutrients medium containing plant hormones that stimulate develpoment of the complete plant

Card 3

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Cloned

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Card 4

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Biotechnology

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Card 5

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Culture

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