Module B2 - Classification.

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What is classification?
Classification is organising living organisms into groups. They help us to understand how organisms are related [evolutionary relationships] and how they interact with eachother [ecological relationships].
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What is natural classifcation?
Natural classification systems are based on the evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms.
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What is an artificial classification system?
Artificial classification systems are based on appearance rather than genens and are used to identify organisms.
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Name the Kingdom subdivisions.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species or a mnemonic is: King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages.
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What is a genus?
A genus is a group of closely-related species.
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What is a species?
A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Why is it difficult to classify organisms into distinct groups?
Because many organisms share characteristics of multiple groups.
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Do classification systems change over time?
Yes. When a classification system is created it fits everything we know so far about different groups of organisms. But as we discover new species and learn more about exisiting ones, we may have to adapt classification systems to fit new findings.
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Why is it hard to classify some newly discovered species?
Some species may not fit into any of the categories. These could be living species or newly discovered fossils. Some fossils have features of two different classes, so it's hard to know where to put it.
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What is DNA sequencing?
DNA sequencing allows us to see genetic differences between groups. As this data is collected, we might find out that the two groups aren't actually closely related as we'd thought- or two groups that we thought to be different are close relatives.
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How can Evolutionary relationships be displayed?
They can be shown with evolutionary trees.
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What do Evolutionary trees show?
Evolutionary trees show common ancestors and relationships between species. The more recent the common ancestor, the more closely related the two species are and the more characteristics they're likely to share.
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How to scientists find out about Evolutionary relationships?
Scientists analyse lots of different genes responsible for lots of different characteristics.
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How are we able to analyse this data?
Studying lots of characteristics for a large group of organisms involves analysing huge amounts of DNA data and is only possible thanks to advances in ICT.
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Card 2

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What is natural classifcation?

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Natural classification systems are based on the evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms.

Card 3

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What is an artificial classification system?

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Card 4

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Name the Kingdom subdivisions.

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Card 5

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What is a genus?

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