Module 4 & 5 Definitions: Acids (and Redox) & Electrons and Bonding

Module 4: Acids and Redox

Module 5: Electrons and Bonding

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Acid
A proton (H+) donor
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Base
A proton (H+) acceptor
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Alkali
A base that is soluble in water
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Salt
A compound formed when the H+ of an acid is replaced by a positive metal ion or ammonium ion
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Strong acid
An acid that fully dissociates into its ions in solution e.g. HCl (aq) --> H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
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Weak acid
An acid that partially dissociates into its ions in solution e.g. CH3COOH H+ (aq) + CH3COO- (aq) ( means reaction is incomplete)
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Neutralisation reaction
The reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt
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Acid + metal
Acid + metal --> salt + hydrogen
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Acid + base
Acid + base --> salt + water
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Acid + carbonate
Acid + carbonate--> salt + water + carbon dioxide
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Acid + alkali (ionic equation)
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) --> H2O (l)
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Titre (and calculation)
The volume of solution added from the burette (final volume - initial volume)
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Orbital
A region of space around the nucleus that can hold up to 2 electrons with opposite spins
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Ionic bonding
The strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Properties of ionic compounds (summary)
High melting / boiling points, dissolve in polar solvents, only conduct electricity in liquid state or aqueous solution
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Covalent bonding
The electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the nuclei of the bonded atoms
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Dative covalent bond
A covalent bond in which both electrons in a shared pair are supplied by only one of the bonded atoms
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Lone pair
A pair of electrons that are not involved in the bond
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Double covalent bond
The electrostatic attraction between 2 shared pairs of electrons and the nuclei of the bonded atoms
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Average bond enthalpy
A measurement of covalent bond strength: the larger the value, the stronger the covalent bond
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A proton (H+) acceptor

Back

Base

Card 3

Front

A base that is soluble in water

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A compound formed when the H+ of an acid is replaced by a positive metal ion or ammonium ion

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An acid that fully dissociates into its ions in solution e.g. HCl (aq) --> H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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