Module 3 - Section 2 - Transport in Animals

Why Multicellular Organism need Transport Systems?
Have a low SA:VOL ratio. Have a high metabolic rate. Active- So need a constant rapid supply of glucose and oxygen and to get rid of cell waste quickly.
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Single Circulatory System
Blood only passes through the heart once for each complete circuit of the body. Eg Fish
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Double Circulatory System
The blood passes through the heart twice for each complete circuit of the body. Eg.Mammals
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Closed Circulatory System
Blood is enclosed inside vessels. Eg. Vertebrates(Fish and Mammals)
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Open Circulatory System
Blood isn't enclosed in vessels at all times, instead it flows freely through body cavity. Eg. Insects
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Arteries
Carry blood from heart to the rest of the body. Thick, muscular walls with elastic fibres to stretch and recoil as the heart beats to maintain high blood pressure. Carries oxygenated blood pulmonary artery (lungs to heart).
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Arterioles
Arteries branch into smaller arteriole. Have similar structure. Controls the amount of blood flowing to tissues.
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Capilleries
Arterioles branch into capillaries. Smallest blood vessel. Gas exchange occurs here so are adapted to be good at diffusion.
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Venules
Capillaries connect to venules. Join together to form veins.
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Veins
Take blood back to heart under low pressure. Large lumen. Contain valves to stop blood flowing back. Carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein (Lungs to Heart).
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Blood Composition
Erythrocytes, White blood cells, Platelets, Proteins, Water and Dissolved solutes
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Tissue Fluid
Fluid that surrounds cells in tissues. Made from what leaves blood plasma. Substances move out of capillaries into tissue fluid via Pressure filtration.
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Pressure Filtration
Hydrostatic pressure in capillaries is grater than tissue fluid forcing it out, reducing hydrostatic pressure in the veins. Water leaving, reduces water potential and conc of plasma proteins increase. Generates Oncotic pressure
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Oncotic Pressure
In venules high Oncotic pressure and low water potential, causing some water to diffuse back in via osmosis.
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Tissue Fluid Composition
Water and Dissolved substances
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Lymph Vessel
Excess fluid doesn't re enter vein, eventually returns to blood via Lymphatic System.
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Lymphatic System
Excess fluid is passed over lymph vessel, valves in lymph vessel stop lymph (excess fluid) going backwards. This moves towards lymph vessel in the heart.
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Lymph Composition
White blood cells, Antibodies, Water and Dissolved substances
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Cardiac Cycle
Ongoing sequence of contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles that keeps blood continuously circulate the body.
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Cardiac Cycle Sequence 1
Ventricles relax. Atria contract-Decrease vol in chambers and increase pressure in chambers, pushing blood into ventricles.
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Cardiac Cycle Sequence 2
Atria relax. Ventricles contract increasing pressure, which becomes higher than ventricles. Forcing AV valves to close and SL valves to open, forcing blood into arteries.
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Cardiac Cycle Sequence 3
Ventricles and Aorta relax. High pressure in pulmonary artery and aorta closes SL valve Blood returns to heart and aorta fills again due to higher pressure in Vena Cava. This repeats the cycle.
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Control of Heartbeat
Sino-Atrial Node(SAN) sets rhythm by sending regular electrical waves over atrial walls. Non-conducting collagen tissue transfer activity to AVN. AVN pases waves over Bundle-Of-His with delay of emptying atria.
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Calculating Heart Rate
heart rate(bpm) = 60/time taken for one heartbeat
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Haemoglobin and Oxyhaemoglobin
Haemoglobin + Oxygen = Oxyhaemoglobin Through Loading and unloading.
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Haemoglobin's Affinity For Oxygen
High...From a high partial pressure of oxygen to a low partial pressure for oxygen.
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Dissociation Curves
Shows how saturated haemoglobin is with oxygen. 'S' Shaped as more saturated the harder it is for more oxygen to join.
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Fetal Haemoglobin
Has higher affinity for oxygen, as need higher than others blood to get oxygen into placenta to survive.
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Bohr Effect
CO2 reacts with water in blood forming carbonic acid. Catalysed by carbonic anhydrase. Rest of CO2 bind to haemoglobin carries to lungs. Carbonic acid dissociates. H+ ions causes oxyhaemoglobin to unload and to load H+, HCO3- transported in blood pl
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Blood only passes through the heart once for each complete circuit of the body. Eg Fish

Back

Single Circulatory System

Card 3

Front

The blood passes through the heart twice for each complete circuit of the body. Eg.Mammals

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Blood is enclosed inside vessels. Eg. Vertebrates(Fish and Mammals)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Blood isn't enclosed in vessels at all times, instead it flows freely through body cavity. Eg. Insects

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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