Module 2 - Section 3 - Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

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What's the Structure of Nucleotides?
Pentose sugar attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
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Why are Nucleotides Important?
They are the monomers that make up DNA and RNA, which are types of nucleic acids. Make ADP and ATP which are energy stores and transport energy.
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What are DNA Nucleotides?
Deoxyribose attached to a phosphate group and base(Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine). Two polynucleotide chains.
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What are RNA Nucleotides?
Ribose attached to a phosphate group and a base(A,Uracil,C,G)
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What are the Types of Bases?
Purine, which are two carbon-nitrogen chains (A,G). Pyramidine, which is just one carbon-nitrogen chain(T,U,C)
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What is the Structure of ADP and ATP?
Ribose attached to adenine and two phosphate groups (ADP) or three phosphate groups (ATP).
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How is ATP Made and Used?
ADP and a phosphate group require energy to form ADP. When the phosphate group breaks off the ATP, produces energy and ADP.
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What is the structure of a Polynucleotide?
A phosphodiester bond is formed between sugar and a phosphate group. This forms the phosphate group.
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What is the structure of DNA?
Two polynucleotide chains form hydrogen bonds between the complementary base to form a double base.
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How do you Purify DNA?
Breaks cells in a blender for a few sec, then put into a detergent solution, then incubate at 60'c for 15 mins, then put ina ice bath until cool. Then filter using coffee filter paper and protese the dribble in ethanol, then DNA forms a precipitate.
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How does DNA go under Semi-Conservative Replication.
DNA helicase breaks hydrogen bonds between bases, one acts as a template for free floating nucleotidesthrough complementary base pairing. these are joined by DNA polymerase. Then H-bonds reform between a new strand and a old strand.
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What is a Gene?
A sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a polypeptide.
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What is messengerRNA (mRNA)?
A single polynucleotide chain made in the nucleus, which contains the genetic code from DNA.
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What is transferRNA (tRNA)?
A single polypeptide chainfolded into a clover shape which is held by H-bonds, which has anticodons on one end and a amino acid on the other.
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What is ribosomalRNA (rRNA)?
Forms 2 sub-units of ribosomes, it catalyses the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids.
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What happens during Transcription?
RNA polymerase attaches to DNA, breaking h-bonds. 1 strand acts as a template. RNA polymerase lines up, free nucleotides via complementry base pairing, joining them together. Polymerase passes the double helix reforms , until it reaches a stop codon.
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What happens during Translation?
mRNA molecule attaches to a ribosome, tRNA then brings amino acides via complementry base pairing to the mRNA. Then rRNA catalyses peptide bonds between the amino acids and tRNA moves away. This continues till it reaches a stop codon.
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Card 2

Front

Why are Nucleotides Important?

Back

They are the monomers that make up DNA and RNA, which are types of nucleic acids. Make ADP and ATP which are energy stores and transport energy.

Card 3

Front

What are DNA Nucleotides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are RNA Nucleotides?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What are the Types of Bases?

Back

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