Models of Memory

Who created the Multie-Store Model
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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What does the MSM suggest?
Memory consists of 3 stores. A sensory store, a STM store and a LTM store
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How does the MSM work?
Information goes in from our environment through a sensory input into the sensory memory. If you pay attention to this sensory memory it will be encoded into your STM. If it is rehearsed further it is transferred into LTM
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What research supports the MSM?
Glanzer and Cunitz (gave PP a list of 20 items)
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What did Glanzer and Cunitz find?
The Primary effect - research shows that participants are able to recall first items and last items on a list but not the middle. Initaial ones are rehearsed and transferred into LTM (if interferrance = disappears) Recency effect = last items in STM
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What syndrome supports the model?
People with Korskoffs syndrome (ammnesia caused by alcoholism) Can recal last items (recency effect) suggesting an unaffected STM but they canot recall 1st items = damaged LTM (primary effect)
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What evidence goes against the model?
Things go into STM through rehearsal. In real life people don't have time to reearse everything yet they still encode info into the LTM (so rehearsal is not always needed e.g. smells)
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What is a limitation of the model?
It is oversimplified - assumes there is only one long term and short term store. Disporoved by brain damaged patients suggesting several different stores
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Who did research into the rehearsal process?
Craik and Lockhart - proposed a different kind of model suggesting LTM are formed by the PROCESSING that you do rather than rehearsal (things that are more memorable are processed more deeply)
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Who developed the Working Memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch
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What is the WMM made up of?
The central executive (attention with limited capacity) controls two SLAVE systems (also with limited capacity)
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What are the slave systems?
Phonological loop (speech based information) episodic buffer, visuo-spatial sketchpad (visiual and spatial information)
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What did Baddeley later split the phonological loop into?
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What did they base their WMM on?
Interferance tasks - if they use the same store to perform the same task it's very difficult (i.e. saying the, the,the whilst reading, both use phonological loopwhich has limited capacity so cannot cope with both tasks)
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Who found support for the system? What study?
Shallice and Warrington the KF case study
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What was the KF case study?
KF was a brain damage patient, with an impaired stm. He had issues with immediate recall of words presented verbally, but not with visual informaion. Suggesting he had an impaired articulatory loop = provides eveidence for WMM
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Why is the WMM critisised ?
The idea of central executive is unspecific/vague/siple, the model doesn't explain what the central executive contributes to the model
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Card 2


What does the MSM suggest?


Memory consists of 3 stores. A sensory store, a STM store and a LTM store

Card 3


How does the MSM work?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What research supports the MSM?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Glanzer and Cunitz find?


Preview of the front of card 5
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