Mitosis

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 07-04-16 21:02
How many cells does mitosis produce?
Mitosis produces two new cells, they have the same number of chromosomes as the parental cell and eachother.
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What is each chromosome in the daughter cell?
An exact replica of each chromosome in the parental cell.
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What does mitosis produce?
Cells that are genetically identical to the parent which give genetic stability.
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What's the significance of mitosis?
Cell division occurs which increases an organisms cell number so it can grow, repair tissues and replace dead cells.
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What are produced by mitosis in plant and animal embryos?
In plant and animal embryos body cells are produced by mitosis so they're genetically identical
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Where does mitosis occur?
Mitosis continually takes place in the bone marrow which produces red and white blood cells, also in nail beds and hair follicles.
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Where does mitosis occur in plants?
It occurs in small groups of cells, in the root and shoot apex called meristems.
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What are the four stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase
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What are the stages of prophase (first two)?
1) The chromosomes condense - they coil getting shorter & thicker, visible as long thin threads. 2) Centriole pairs seperate and move to opposite poles of the cell.
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What are the stages of prophase (three-four)?
3) From each centirole protein microtubules are formed making the spindle, spindle fibres extend from pole to pole and pole to centromere of each chromosome. 4) Nuclear envelope disintegrates and nucleolus disappears.
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What are the stages of metaphase?
1) Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibres at their centromeres and align on the equator. The chromosomes are lying on the equator.
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What are the stages of anaphase?
1) Centromeres seperate. 2) Spindle fibres shorten, pulling the separated chromatids to the poles, centromeres first.
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What are the stages of telophase?
1) Chromosomes uncoil and lengthen. 2) Spindle fibres break down. 3) Nuclear envelope re-forms. 4) Nucleolus reappears.
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What is cytokinesis?
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm, it takes place after telophase and makes two new cells.
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How does cytokinesis occur in animal cells?
It occurs by the constriction of the parent cell around the equator, from the outside inwards.
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How does cytokinesis occur in plant cells?
In plant cells droplets of cell water material from across the cell plate of the parent cell from the centre outwards. They extend and join to form the new cell wall.
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What does asexual reproduction produce and where does it take place?
Offspring which are genetically identicle to parents. It takes place in unicellular organisms. No genetic variation as they're all genetically identicle.
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What is the length of the cell cycle controlled by?
It's controlled by genes, ensuring mitosis happens where and when needed. Allow correct timing of repair of tissues in adults, and correct development in embyros.
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What happens if the genes that control the cell cycle are damaged?
The cells may not divide or may divide too often or at the wrong time.
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What can mutate DNA?
Radiation, certain chemicals and viruses can mutate DNA.
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What happens if replication occurs too fast in solid tissue?
A tumour will form. e.g. in the wall of the colon
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What happens if replication occurs too fast in bone marrow?
Too many immature blood cells accumulate so they spill out into the blood stream as blood cancers. e.g. luekaemia.
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What are tumour suppressor cells?
Cells that prevent rapid replication, which otherwise would lead to tumour formation.
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What are proto-oncogenes?
Genes which have become mutated and have the potential to cause cancer which are altered, so they don't cause cancer
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What are oncogenes?
Genes that are altered and able to cause cancer
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What is each chromosome in the daughter cell?

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An exact replica of each chromosome in the parental cell.

Card 3

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Card 4

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What's the significance of mitosis?

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Card 5

Front

What are produced by mitosis in plant and animal embryos?

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