Mitochondria structure and function

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Describe the structure of mitochondria (4)
All have an inner and outer membrane (envelope). Outer membrane=smooth, inner is folded into cristae for a large SA. Intermembrane space between inner and outer. Matrix in the centre.
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What is the shape of mitochondria?
Rod-shaped or thread-like.
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How can mitochondria be moved around within cells?
Moved by the cytoskeleton.
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What happens in respiration in the matrix?
The Link Reaction and Krebs Cycle
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What does the matrix contain? (5)
Enzymes that catalyse these reactions, molecules of NAD, oxaloacetate, mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
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What does the outer membrane contain (3)
Contains proteins (some channels, some carriers, some enzymes).
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Describe the structure of the inner membrane (5)
Has a different lipid composition from outer, impermeable to small ions, folded into cristae, has electron carriers and ATP synthase enzymes embedded in it.
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How are the electron carriers arranged?
Electron transport chains.
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Describe each electron carrier
Each is an enzyme and associated with a cofactor.
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What are cofactors?
Non-protein groups - haem groups with an iron atom.
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What can cofactors do and why?
Can accept and donate electrons as the iron atoms can become reduced by accepting an electron and oxidised by donating an electron.
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What type of enzymes are cofactors?
Oxidoreductase enzymes because they are in involved in oxidation and reduction reactions.
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What do some of the electron carriers also have?
Have a coenzyme that pumps protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space.
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What happens because the inner membrane is impermeable to small ions?
Protons accumulate in the intermembrane space, building a proton gradient.
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Describe the ATP synthase enzymes (3)
They are large and protrude from inner membrane into the matrix, also known as stalked particles and allow protons to pass through them.
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What is chemiosmosis?
Protons flow down a proton gradient, through ATP enzymes from the intermembrane space into matrix.
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What is it that allows ADP and Pi to to be joined to make ATP?
The force of the slow drives the rotation of part of the enzyme.
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When is the coenzyme FAD reduced?
During a stage of the Krebs Cycle.
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What is FAD bound to?
Bound to a dehydrogenase enzyme that is embedded in the inner membrane.
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What happens to the hydrogen atoms accepted by FAD?
They pass back into the mitochondrial matrix.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the shape of mitochondria?


Rod-shaped or thread-like.

Card 3


How can mitochondria be moved around within cells?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What happens in respiration in the matrix?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the matrix contain? (5)


Preview of the front of card 5
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