Mineral Questions

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  • Created by: vdagnan
  • Created on: 06-05-14 11:58
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
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What does transition metal mean?
That it can exist in more than one state
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What are the four functions of Iron
Oxygen transport, Enzyme cofactor or constituent, immune function, brain function
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What are heam molecules?
The iron containing portion of haemoglobin
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What is Haemoglobin?
Part of red blood cells that carries oxygen to body tissues and Carbon dioxide away from tissues
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What is Myoglobin?
The Iron containing protein that resides in muscle and controls rate of diffusion of O2 from RBC to muscle cells
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What is Irons role in metabolism?
It is a component of cytochromes in the electron transport chain, it is present in enzymes in the Krebs cycle
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What is Irons role in the Immune system?
It is an important factor in lymphocyte activation and proliferation (however it can also nourish bacteria in Iron overload
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What is Irons Role in Brain Function?
It produces the protective myelin sheath that surrounds nerve cells, and Iron produces neurotransmitters to carry messages between nerve cells
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What is haem and non-haem Iron and where can it be found?
Haem is organic Iron readily found in animal foods and readily absorbed, non-haem is inorganic and found in plant sources less readily absorbed
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Where is it absorbed?
Small intestine in Duodenum and upper jejunum
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How much can be absorbed?
It is regulated by GI tract, when the body needs more, more is absorbed
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How is it transported?
Transported in the blood bound to a carrier protein transferrin
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Where is the primary storage site?
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What factors increase Iron Absorption?
Gastric acid, haem iron foods, high demand ie in pregnancy and blood loss, exercise, low body stores, Vitamin C
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What factors decrease absorption?
Phytic acid, oxalic acid, Polyphenols in tea, coffee and red wine, full body stores, excess of minerals, ZN, Mn, Ca, reduced gastric acid
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Explain Iron turnover?
Old blood cells release Iron which the body recycles. In a healthy adult mail 95% of required Iron is recycled the rest must come from the diet
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Why are children at a higher risk of deficiency?
Because they are going through rapid growth, dietary iron must supply about 30% of iron requirements
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How is Iron excreted in the body?
Faeces, sweat and skin cells (about 1mg per day)
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What is the RNI for Females aged 15-50 years and those over 50?
15 - 50 = 14.8mg >50 = 8.7mg
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What is the RNI for males 15-18 and 19+?
15-18 = 11.3mg >19 = 8.7mg
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What are the three stages of Iron deficiency?
Depletion of Iron stores, depletion of functional Iron, Iron deficiency anemia
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What are the groups at risk of Iron deficiency anemia?
Teenage girls, vegan/vegetarian diets, pre term infants, increased needs
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What are the signs and symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia
General fatigue, breathlessness on exertion, pale skin, loss of appetite, headaches, insomnia, palpitations, tachycardia
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Card 2


What does transition metal mean?


That it can exist in more than one state

Card 3


What are the four functions of Iron


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Card 4


What are heam molecules?


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Card 5


What is Haemoglobin?


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