Milgrams Variations + Evaluation

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  • Created by: mimipopx
  • Created on: 16-04-16 11:12
What was the aim of variation 7?
To test if the relationship between participant and experimenter would have important consequences for obedience.
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Procedure?
After giving initial instructions, the experimenter left the laboratory and gave his orders by telephone. All other parts of the procedure were the same as the original study.
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Results?
Only 9 (22.5%) participants were obedient
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What happened when the experimenter left?
several participants administered lower shocks than were required and never informed the experimenter of their deviation from the correct procedure
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Conclusions
This experiment showed that the physica l presence of an authority figure was an important force contributing to the participants’ obedience or defiance.
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Strength?
Same procedure in all of his studies so this helps with comparison. This gives reliability as everything is consistent apart from the one variation, whether the experimenter is present or not, so any difference is caused by the variation
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Weakness?
not a natural setting so lacks ecological validity
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Strength?
he found that physical presence of the person giving orders did affect obedience, which supports the claim in Experiment 7.
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Weakness?
Participants may not have believed they were real shocks. If this was the case, validity is under question.
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Weakness?
participants seemed to have a relationsh ip with the experimenter so they were in the role of ‘helper’. which means that there is a question over the validity of the results.
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What was the aim of variation 10?
To question the relationship of obe dience to a person’s sense of the context in which he is operating
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How did they do this?
The apparatus was moved to an office building in a nearby industrial city, Bridgeport, and replicated experimental conditions without any visible tie to the university.
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Procedure?
The experiments were conducted in a three - room office suite in a somewhat rundown commercial building located in the downtown shopping area. Otherwise the procedure was the same.
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Results?
48% of the Bridgeport participants delive red the maximum shock versus 65% in the cor responding condition at Yale.
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What about tension?
There was no noticeable reduction in tension for the Bridgeport participants.
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Conclusions?
Obedience decreased (but only slightly) in a less prestigious environment.
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Strength?
High ecological validity- rundown office block seen as more natural
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Weakness?
validity can still be questionned as it was clearly still a lab environment
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Strength?
identical to studies at yale so cause and effect conclusions can be drawn
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Weakness?
still lots of controls- questions validity
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What was the aim of variation 13?
To see if participants would still be obedient when an 'ordinary man' was giving instructions
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How did they do this?
n ordinary man, who appears to be a participant , to order specific shock levels
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Procedure?
a rigged phone call takes the experimenter away from the expt and then the confederate ppt takes control over the actual ppt
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Results?
16/20 participants disobeyed the common man. only 20% obeyed
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Conclusion notes
Although the experimentor had been removed, there was still an authoratative situation present.
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What was the role of the ordinary man?
Only to specify shock levels.
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Strength?
The procedure was kept the same as the original so direct comparisons could be made.
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Weakness?
This experiment lacks ecological validity as the setting is artificial.
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Strength?
Authority was reduced so the participant believed that the accomplice was another participant
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Weakness?
Milgram admitted that there was still a lot of authority in the situation, such as the scientific – looking apparatus and the obvious approval from Yale in the setting up of the experiment
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Card 2

Front

Procedure?

Back

After giving initial instructions, the experimenter left the laboratory and gave his orders by telephone. All other parts of the procedure were the same as the original study.

Card 3

Front

Results?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened when the experimenter left?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Conclusions

Back

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