Milgram PY2 flashcards

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  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 07-04-14 10:16
First context of Milgram?
After WW2's holocausy, psychologists were keen to prevent it happening again. Was brutality a product of evil minds or was it carried out by ordinary people?
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First context Milgram quote?
'These inhumane policies such as the death camps may have originated in the mind of a singlen person, but they could only be carried out on a massive scale if lots of people obeyed orders.
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Second aims and context?
It was believed the holocaust happened because 'Germans are different' and have 'authoritarian personalities'. Adorno (1950) suggested people with such personalities are obedient to superiors, and very intolerant to those considered inferior. (jews)
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Adorno conclusion?
It was suggested that these prejudices were a result of harsh upbringing that was displaced onto minority groups.
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3rd Context?
Arendt's (1963) research involved a case study of Eichmann - the nazi responsible for implementing the final solution. His trial for war crimes in 1961 revealed that he was not evil or sadistic, but 'terrifyingly normal'.
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3rd context continued?
He had just obeyed orders from his superior, Heinrich Himmler. By 1944 Eichmann had overseen the deaths of 6 milllion jews in death camps such as Auschwitz.
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Milgram Aim 1?
To find out, in a controlled setting, whether people would obey authority, even when the command involves destructive behaviour.
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Milgram aim 2?
To test the hypothesis that 'germans are different' and that their personalities lead to the Holocaust.
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Milgram's research method? (procedures)
Observing pps under tightly controlled conditions.
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Milgram's sample point 1? (procedures)
Consisted of 40 males, aged 20-50.
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How were milgram's pps chosen?
Volunteer sampling, where a newspaper advertisement was placed in the New Haven News.
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Milgram sample point 2? (procedures)
Pps had a range of jobs, from postal clerks to engineers.
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Milgram sample point 3? (procedures)
Pps education ranged from very low level to a doctorate (PhD)
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What were pps told about the study?
That the research (at Yale University) was about memory, learning and punishment
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How much were pps paid?
All paid 4.50 (50 cent was for a carfare) just for turning up, payment did not depend on pps remaining in the study.
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Research involved 1?
3 people: 'teacher (naieve/genuine pp), 'learner' aka Mr Wallace (confederate, 47 year old accountant), 'experimenter (confederate, 31 year old biology teacher.)
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Who was Mr Wallace?
The learner, who was a confederate. He was aged 47 and he was an accountant.
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Who was the experimenter?
Confederate, 31 year old Biology teacher.
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Research involved 2?
The 'teacher' and the 'learner' always drew rigged lots and the genuine pp was always the 'teacher'.
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Research involved 3?
All 3 people went to the next room to rig up the 'learner' using barrier paste, wires etc.
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Research involved 4?
Teacher was given a sample 45 volt shock using a hidden battery.
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Research involved 5?
The shock generator had 30 switches, plus labels at every 4 switches saying things such as 'danger:severe shock' and 'XXX'
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Research involved 6?
The 'teacher' was told to give shocks to the 'learner' when he made a mistake in a word pair test.
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Research involved 7?
The shock was to increase 15 volts each time the learner made a mistake.
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Research involved 8?
If the pp hesitated, thenj the 'experimenter' would give prods, e.g. 'please continue' or 'the experiment requires that you continue'.
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Research involved 9?
The pp 'teacher' could hear the 'learner' in the next room, but after 315 volts the learner went quiet.
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When did learner go quiet?
315 volts.
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How did milgram address ethical issues?
Debriefing and interviewing the pps straight after the study. He explained the purpose of the study and that the shocks were fake. He also ensured that the pps were in a 'state of well-being' before they left the study.
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Findings 1?
Before the study began, 14 psychology students estimated that only 0-3% os ppf would give 450v shock to learners.
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How many pps gave full 450v shocks?
65% (25 pps)
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How many pps defied the experimenter and stopped before 450 volts?
35% (14 pps)
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How many pps withdrew at 300 volts?
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How many pps withdrew at 315 volts?
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How many pps withdrew at 330 volts?
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How many pps withdrew at 345 volts?
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How many pps withdrew at 360 volts?
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How many pps withdrew at 375 volts?
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Findings 2?
Many pps had shown signs of extreme tension, e.g. nervous laughter, sweating, trembling, lip biting, and digging nails into their flesh.
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Finding 3?
3 pps had uncontrollable seizures.
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Found in debriefs 1?
The pps felt extremely stressed and anxious during the research.
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Found in debriefs 2?
On a 14 point scale pps modal answer to the question 'how painful do you think the shocks were?' was 14 (when 14 was extremely painful.)
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How many conclusions did milgram come to?
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Conclusion 1?
People obey authority because of the situation they are in, not because they are 'evil people'.
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Conclusion 2?
Pps obeyed because the study was done at Yale University which provided authority.
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Conclusion 3?
Pps obeyed because it appeared that the experimenter knew what he was doing and had a worthy purpose that they did not want to disrupt.
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Conclusion 4?
Pps believed that the allocation of the 'teacher and learner' was random therefore the learner cannot complain.
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Conlcusion 5?
Pps obeyed because they had been payed and felt obliged.
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Conclusion 6?
Pps obeyed because they believed the shocks were 'painful but not dangerous' therefore discomfort would only be temporary.
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Conclusion 7?
Pps arose from the conflict of wanting the obey but not wanting to hurt the 'learner'.
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Procedure 10?
Milgram repeated experiment 19 times with different variations (e.g. used all women in one study.)
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Strong as all pps followed same procedure (same rigging). All pps subject to same test due to standardised procedure. Also the replications (e.g all women) checked consistency of results.
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Problematic - lacked mundane realism, pps wouldn't have to shock people in real life. However had internal validty as 65% administered 450 volts so showed the results tested the aims. n
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Problematic - volunteer sample so all pps automatically gave consent. However advert was in New Haven so lead to culture bias as only from one place. (not representitive.)
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Strong, qualitative (65% pps administered final shock) and qualitative (pps laughed under stress.)
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Weak - decieved, rigged lots. Not pretected from physical harm (3 pps had strokes). Nor protected from psychological harm (guilt for possible killing someone.) Pps did not give fully infomed consent (signed up for memory/learning test)however debrief
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Alternative evidence people for Milgram?
Arendt, Adorno, Rank & Jacobson.
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Alternative Evidence 1?
Supported by Arendt as he found that Eichman was 'terrifyingly normal' and just obeyed orders. This supports milgram as both sets of pps obeyed orders becayse of situation (Eichmann followed Himmler, pps followed due to experimenter prods)
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Alt Evidence 1, which is more reliable?
Arendt's is less reliable as it focuses on only 1 person, so its hard to generalise, whereas milgram used 40 pps. However Arendt is higher in validity as he used a real life person and situation to test the hypothesis.
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Alternative Evidence 2?
Adorno challenges Milgram as he believed that behaviour is shaped by personality - especially authoritarian. Challenges Milgram as he found that it was the situation that the teacher was in, not their personality.
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Alt evidence 2, which is better?
Milgram's research was better as he tested his hypothesis thus making it more reliable than Adorno as his work was only theoretical.
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Alternative Evidence 3?
Rank & Jacobson challenges Milgram. They studied nurses in a hospital where they were asked to give 3x the dose of valium to a patient by a doctor. They found that 89% (16/18) did not obey the doctor. Challenges milgram's claim that people obey autho
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Alt evidence 3 which is better?
One could argue that R&J's findings are limited by the fact that it was a feild experiment and was not carried out under controlled conditions like Milgrams, loweing the reliability. However R&J's was in a real life situation so was higher in validty
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


First context Milgram quote?


'These inhumane policies such as the death camps may have originated in the mind of a singlen person, but they could only be carried out on a massive scale if lots of people obeyed orders.

Card 3


Second aims and context?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Adorno conclusion?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


3rd Context?


Preview of the front of card 5
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