Milgram Original Study + Evaluation

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  • Created by: mimipopx
  • Created on: 16-04-16 10:04
When was Milgrams original study?
1963
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What was the aim of the original study?
The aim of the experiment was to investigate what level of obedience would be shown when participants were told by an authority figure to administer electric shocks to another person.
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Why was Milgrams study carried out?
He wanted to test the 'germans are different' hypothesis and thought that anybody would be obedient to do so when required by an authority figure
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Participants?
40 males between 20 and 50years old, from around Yale University area.
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How were participants gained?
responding to a newspaper and direct mail advertisement. They were paid $4.50 for their participation
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Where did the experiment take place?
Yale University
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Who was Mr Wallace?
a confederate who played the part of the learner
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What were particpants told the aim was?
to investigate the effects of punishment on learning .
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What was the particpant given before they started?
a sample shock of 45 volts
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What was the task?
read a series of word pairs to the learner, then they had to match them
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If the learner got the pairing wrong?
participant had to tell the learner the correct answer and then the level of punishment that they were going to give them.
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What was one control?
The learner gives a predetermined set of responses to the word pair test, based on a schedule of approximately three wrong answers to one correct answer.
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Some of the responses from the learner?
moans/groans, requests to be excused from experiment, yelled ‘Let me out! My heart’s bothering me.’
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What were used if the learner did not want to continue? with examples
Verbal Prods; Prod 1: "Please continue” or “Please go on” ; Prod 2: “ The experi ment requires that you continue” ; Prod 3: “ It is absolut ely essential that you continue” ; Prod 4: “ You have no other choice, you must go on”
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After the experiment?
participants were thoroughly debriefed using open - ended questions, reunited with the victim to show them that the victim was not harmed
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How many ppts went to 300 volts?
All 40, after this point 5 refused to continue
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How many ppts went to the full 450 volts?
65% (26) the other 35% dropped out after 300 volts
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What signs did ppts show during the expt?
signs of nervousness and tension. Participants sweated, trembled, stuttered, bit their lips, groaned, dug fingernails into their flesh, even seizures
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Conclusion?
Social influence is strong and people obey orders even when this causes them distress. It was not thought that people would obey and such obedience is surprising.
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What were some features which milgram thought created obedience?
prestigious Yale University lent the study and procedure credibility and respect, worthy purpose, The participant felt obligated- especially due to pay, The participants had been *** ured that the shocks were ‘painful but not dangerous
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What percentage of participants surveyed later said they were "glad" or "very glad" to have participated?
84%
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Generalisability
No- only 40 males from one area
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Reliaibilty
Yes- high controls (verbal prods, responses from learner) easily, was repeated replicable
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Application to Real Life
YEs- My Lai, general army situations, group crime in courts
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Validity
No- ecological - setting may have altered results Yes- experimental -the ppts believed it was real, no moral strain
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Ethics
No- no right to withdraw, no informed consent, distress caused Yes- debriefed, many said they were happy to take part
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What was the aim of the original study?

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The aim of the experiment was to investigate what level of obedience would be shown when participants were told by an authority figure to administer electric shocks to another person.

Card 3

Front

Why was Milgrams study carried out?

Back

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Card 4

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Participants?

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Card 5

Front

How were participants gained?

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