Microorganisms and Disease defence

  • Created by: annaquinn
  • Created on: 26-05-18 12:31
What is Spontaneous Generation?
Living organisms come to life from non-living matter
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Who did not believe this?
Louis Pasteur
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What is Pasteurisation?
heating food to 72 degrees for 15 seconds then rapidly cooling
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What does this process do?
kills microbes so food doesn't spoil rapidly
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What is a vaccine?
dead/modified pathogens which have been weakened but have specific antigen on surface membrane
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How are they weakened?
By having their DNA removed
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What do our lymphocytes do to this pathogen?
Recognise it as foreign and porduce antibodies and lymphocyte memory cells
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Who was nicknamed the 'father of modern vaccines'?
Edward Jenner
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How did he discover vaccines?
innoculated a boy with cowpox pus, then with smallpox pus, the boy didn't become ill and was immune
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Give three ways the body prevents microbes entering the body.
1. Skin 2. Cilia cells 3. Clotting
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Give the two types of white blood cells.
Lymphocytes and Phagocytes
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What do lymphocytes do?
Produce antibodies specific to antigen. Attaches to microbe and clumps them together.
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What do Phagocytes do?
engulf the clumped microbe
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What is immunity?
When somebodies antibody levels are high enough to avoid symptoms of the disease
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What is natural passive immunity?
Immediate/short term action
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What is an example of this?
Mother to foetus via placenta
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What is natural active immunity?
Slow-acting/long-lasting action
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What is an example of this?
Contracting disease and body response naturally
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What is artificial passive immunity?
Immediate/short term action
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What is an example of this?
Ready made antibodies injected
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What is artificial active immunity?
Slow-acting/Long-lasting action
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What is an example of this?
Vaccine
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Why is aseptic technique important?
To kill all microbes and to prevent contamination
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Give a few aseptic techniques.
1. Use sterile utensils 2. Flame everything 3. Don't culture microbes at body temp 4. Swab down bench with alcohol
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What are two legal 'drugs'?
Alcohol and Smoking
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What are two illegal drugs?
Cannabis and Cocaine
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What are the effects of Alcohol?
Liver damage and damage to foetus during pregnancy
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What is its cost to society?
Violence, drink-driving and family problems
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What are the effects of Smoking?
Lung cancer, bronchitis and heart damage
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What is its cost to society?
Passive smoking and public eyesore
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What are the effects of cannabis?
Relaxation 'high', long-term mental problems and hallucinations
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What is its cost to society?
NHS struggles
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What is the effect of cocaine?
Cardiac arrest/seizures
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What is its cost to society?
NHS struggles
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Name the 4 bacteria microbes.
1. Gonorrhoea 2.Salmonella 3. Tuberculosis 4. Chlamydia
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How are these treated?
Antibiotics
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Which of these 4 are sexually transmitted?
Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia
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How can these be prevented?
Use of condom
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Name the 6 virus microbes.
1. HIV 2. Cold/Flu 3. Mumps 4. Measles 5. Polio 6. Rubella
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Name the fungi microbe.
Athlete's foot
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How is this treated?
Anti-fungal cream
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What does an Antibiotic do?
Kill bacteria or stop their growth
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How do they do this?
They prevent the bacteria cell wall forming
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Who discovered antibiotics?
Sir Alexander Fleming
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When?
1928
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What was this particular bacteria called?
Penicillin
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How did he discover this?
Accidentally when he found a mould growing on one of his agar plates. He noticed that the agar with the mould had fewer bacteria growing. The mould was producing a substance which stopped the growth of the bacteria.
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Was machine was used to make this in large quantities?
A Biodigester
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who did not believe this?

Back

Louis Pasteur

Card 3

Front

What is Pasteurisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does this process do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a vaccine?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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