Methods in Psychology

1) Inferential Statistics

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Probability
The percentage likelihood that an observed effect is due to chance
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Level of Significance
The level of propability at which a researcher will decide to reject the H0 and accept the H1 or vice versa. The usual level of significance for psychological research is 0.05 or 5%
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one-tailed hypothesis
A hypothesis that predicts an effect in a single direction
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two-tailed hypothesis
A hypothesis that predicts an effect but does not specify the direction of the effect
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Type 1 error
A statistical error is that optimistic whereby the H0 is rejected as the results are due to chance
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Type 2 error
A statistical error which is pesimistic whereby the H0 is accepted due to poor research design, faulty sampling or a random error
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correlation coefficient
The strength of a relationship between two variables as a number between +1 and -1
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positive correlation
as one variable increases, so does the other variable e.g. the more time spent on homework, the higher your grade will be
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negative correlation
as one variable increases, the other variable decreases e.g. the more time going to working, the less time you have to go out
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zero correlation
There is no relationship between the two variables
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opportunity sampling
people selected are those who are easily available and appear suitable for the investigation. The method is quick and convenient
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random sampling
Every memeber of the target population has an equal chance of being selected. This can be done by drawing names from a hat or by giving everyone a number and using a computer to generate a random list
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stratified sampling
Different sub-groups (strata) within the population are identified and a sample is randomly selected from each. Each sub-group is thus represented proportionately
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systematic sampling
Every nth member of the target population is chosen e.g. every 3rd student on all the school's class registers
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Card 2

Front

The level of propability at which a researcher will decide to reject the H0 and accept the H1 or vice versa. The usual level of significance for psychological research is 0.05 or 5%

Back

Level of Significance

Card 3

Front

A hypothesis that predicts an effect in a single direction

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hypothesis that predicts an effect but does not specify the direction of the effect

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A statistical error is that optimistic whereby the H0 is rejected as the results are due to chance

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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