Methodological Issues

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  • Created by: FlimJim
  • Created on: 12-05-14 15:09
Ecological validity
How well a study can be related to or reflects everyday, real life. Studies with high ecological validity can be generalised beyond the setting they were carried out in, whereas studies low in ecological validity cannot.
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Longitudinal Approach
A longitudinal study is carried out over a longer period of time where a group of participants is followed up after a period of time. May suffer from attrition which refers to the loss of participants from a study.
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Snapshot Approach
A snap shot study is a study carried out over a very short period of time such as hours and days.longitudinal study is carried out over a longer period of time such as weeks, months or years. They are quicker and cheaper, but limited.
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Qualitative Data
Data that describes meaning and experiences. What qualitative methods (e.g. case studies and interviews) lose on reliability they gain in terms of validity. They provide a more in depth and rich description.
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Quantitative Data
Data that focuses on numbers and frequencies. Quantitative methods (e.g. experiments, questionnaires and psychometric tests) provide information that is easy to analyse statistically and is fairly reliable. Criticised for not giving descriptions.
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Consent
Have the subjects of the study made an informed consent to take part? Have the parents of child subjects given informed consent to the research procedures? Have payments been used to induce risk taking behaviour?
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Deception
Have the subjects been deceived? Was there any other way to carry out the study other than by using deception? Have the procedures been approved by other psychologists?
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Debriefing
Have the subjects been effectively debriefed? Has any stress caused by the procedures been removed?
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Withdrawal from the investigation
Are the subjects clear that they can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or scorn?
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Confidentiality
Participants in psychological research have the right to expect that information they provide will be treated confidentially.
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Protection of participants
Investigators must protect participants from physical and mental harm during the investigation.
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Observational research
Unless the participants give the consent to being observed, observational research must only take place where those observed could normally be expected to be observed by strangers.
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Giving advice
Psychological advice must only be given if the psychologist is qualified in the area that the advice is requested in.
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Reliability
Reliability refers to how consistent a study or measuring device is. A measurement is said to be reliable or consistent if the measurement can produce similar results if used again in similar circumstances.
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Internal Reliability
Internal reliability refers to the extent to which a measure is consistent within itself. Can be assessed using the split half method. If the two halves of the test provide similar results this would suggest that the test has internal reliability.
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External Reliability
External reliability refers to the extent to which a measure varies from one use to another. Can be assessed using the test-retest method. Involves testing the same participant twice on the same test. Similar scores suggests external reliability.
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Validity
Validity refers to whether a study measures or examines what it claims to measure or examine. We can evaluate the validity of the measuring tool (e.g. psychometric test, questionnaire etc) and the validity of the procedure of a study.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A longitudinal study is carried out over a longer period of time where a group of participants is followed up after a period of time. May suffer from attrition which refers to the loss of participants from a study.

Back

Longitudinal Approach

Card 3

Front

A snap shot study is a study carried out over a very short period of time such as hours and days.longitudinal study is carried out over a longer period of time such as weeks, months or years. They are quicker and cheaper, but limited.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Data that describes meaning and experiences. What qualitative methods (e.g. case studies and interviews) lose on reliability they gain in terms of validity. They provide a more in depth and rich description.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Data that focuses on numbers and frequencies. Quantitative methods (e.g. experiments, questionnaires and psychometric tests) provide information that is easy to analyse statistically and is fairly reliable. Criticised for not giving descriptions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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