Metals

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  • Created by: Rubyblu
  • Created on: 10-04-18 11:45
properties of metals
good conductors of electricity and heat, high melting and boiling points (solid at room temperature), hard, strong, don't shatter easily, look shiny when polished
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properties of metal II
sonorous, high density, form positive ions when the react, react with oxygen to form oxides that are bases
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reacting with dilute acids
metals react with dilute acids to form salts, and hydrogen gas is given off
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reacting with oxygen
metals react with oxygen to form oxides, and these oxides are bases - they neutralise acids, forming salts and water
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what they form when they've reacted
metals form positive ions when they react
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reactive metals
have strong drives to give up electrons and form ions, with stable outer electron shells, so they reacts readily to form compounds
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order of reactivity (from least to most) with water
gold (no reaction), silver (no reaction), copper (no reaction), iron (slow with steam), zinc (quite slow with steam), magnesium (very slow with cold water, but vigorous with steam), calcium (less violent with cold water)
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order of reactivity II
sodium (violent with cold water), potassium (very violent with cold water; catches fire)
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order of reactivity (from least to most) with hydrochloric acid
gold (no reaction), silver (no reaction), copper (no reaction even w. concentrated acid), lead (slow + only if acid is concentrated), iron (slow), zinc (quite slow), magnesium (vigorous)
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hydrogen is displaced
when a metal reacts with water or hydrochloric acid, it drives hydrogen out, and takes its place, which shows the metal is more reactive than hydrogen, and has a stronger drive to form a compound
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redox reaction
a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two species
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oxidation
the loss of electrons
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reduction
gain of electrons
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competing with carbon
carbon is more reactive than some metals, it will reduce their oxides to the metal
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competing with other metals for oxygen
a metal will reduce the oxide of a less reactive metal, and the reduction always gives out heat - it is exothermic
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competing to form ion in solution
a metal displaces a less reactive metal from solutions of its compounds
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comparing the drive to form ions
the more reactive metal forms positive ions more readily
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the reactivity series
least reactive (hydrogen displaces these metals): gold, silver, copper; increasing reactivity (carbon displaces these metals): lead, iron, zinc; most reactive (carbon can't reduce their oxides): aluminium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium
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their drive
the reactivity series is a list of the metals in order of their drive to give up electrons, and form positive ions with stable outer shells
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reacting
a metal will react with a compound of a less reactive metal by pushing the less reactive metal out of the compound and taking its place
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stable
the more reactive the metal, the more stable its compounds are, they don't break down easily
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electrolysis
chemical decomposition produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions; used when the metal is very reactive, so its hard to extract from its ores, since they're stable compounds
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compounds
the less reactive the metal, the less it likes to form compounds
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thermal decomposition
the lower the reactivity of a metal, the more readily its compounds decompose when heated; carbonate, except those of Na and K, decompose to the oxide and carbon dioxide; hydroxides, except those of Na and K, decompose to the oxide and water
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thermal decomposition II
nitrates, except those of Na and K, decompose to the oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen, and the nitrates of Na and K form nitrites and oxygen
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uses of the reactivity series
the thermite process; making simple cells (a simple cell consists of to different metals in an electrolyte, electrons flow from the more reactive metal, so it is called the negative pole, the other metal is the positive pole)
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uses of the reactivity series II
using other metals in simple cells (the further apart the metals are in reactivity, the higher the voltage will be); the sacrificial protection of iron (the zinc is used instead of the iron); galvanising (the iron or steel is coated with zinc)
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metals in the earth's crust
the crust is mostly made of compounds, but also contains some elements, such as copper, silver, mercury, platinum and gold, and these occur native (uncombined) because they are unreactive
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precious metals
include gold, silver, platinum, and palladium because they are scarce, expensive, and are often kept as a store of wealth
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extraction of unreactive metals
these metals occur in their ores as elements, and all you need to do is separate the metal from sand and other impurities
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ores of other metals
contain the metals as compounds, so they have to be reduced to give the metal: metal compound --> reduction --> metal
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extraction of more reactive metals
these compounds are very stable, and need electrolysis to reduce them
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extraction of less reactive metals
these compounds are less stable, and can be reduced to the metal by a chemical reaction
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blast furnace
used for extracting iron from its ore
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electrolysis tank
used for the electrolysis of aluminium
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

sonorous, high density, form positive ions when the react, react with oxygen to form oxides that are bases

Back

properties of metal II

Card 3

Front

metals react with dilute acids to form salts, and hydrogen gas is given off

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

metals react with oxygen to form oxides, and these oxides are bases - they neutralise acids, forming salts and water

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

metals form positive ions when they react

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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