Meta-ethics key words and people

HideShow resource information
Normativism
Rules used to make ethical decisions, e.g utilitarianism, natural law
1 of 29
Naturalistic fallacy
Good cannot be defined.
2 of 29
Ethical cognitivism
Moral statements are objectively true or false.
3 of 29
Ethical non-cognitivism
Moral statements can't be proved to be true or false
4 of 29
Emotivism
Moral statements are expressions of feelings
5 of 29
Give one strength of emotivism
Everyone's opinions are equally valid, doesn't allow cultural relativism
6 of 29
Give one criticism of emotivism
Ethical statements = meaningless. CL = why should one person's views matter more? Allows people free reign. Rachels - moral judgements arbitrary.
7 of 29
A.J Ayer
Ethical terms "arouse feeling, stimulate action". Analytic + synthetic statements meaningful, ehtical ones not.
8 of 29
C.L Stevenson
Ethical statements = attitudes based on world beliefs, trying to infl. othes
9 of 29
Intuitionism
We know moral truths intuitively, allowing us to make ethical decisions
10 of 29
Give one strength of intuitionism
Appeals to human nature, simple, allows instant answers to issues
11 of 29
Give one criticism of intutionism.
EMOTIONS give us intuition; different people = different intuitions.
12 of 29
H.A Pritchard
Intuition + reason = two types of thinking, former looks, latter decides. Intuiton underdeveloped in some. Can't define "ought" obligations
13 of 29
W.D Ross
Certain "prima facie" duties always right - FRGJBM. Must judge what's right, one duty can be rejected for another.
14 of 29
Give one criticism of W.D Ross
How do we know which duty to pick when one conflicts?
15 of 29
Prescriptivism
Moral statements are universal
16 of 29
Give one criticism of prescriptivism
No valid reason for following a certain prescription; different preferences; "ought" judgements ARE obj.
17 of 29
Give one strength of prescriptivism
Logical - we often prescribe courses of acion when making moral judgements
18 of 29
R.M Hare
Ethical statements are universal expressions of opinion, prescribed to others
19 of 29
Subjectivism
Each person's views are relative to them and can't be judged due to this
20 of 29
Realism
Moral statements are facts about objective features of the world.
21 of 29
Anti-realism
The denial of an objective reality
22 of 29
Objectivism
Truth is objectively real regardless of culture.
23 of 29
G.E Moore
Argued against ethical naturalism, saying that "good" can't be a natural property
24 of 29
F.H Bradley
Moral statements express propositions; some of which are proven true by obj. features of world
25 of 29
Ethical naturalism
Good and bad are observable qualities. Can be reduced to non-ethical properties – e.g wants, needs.
26 of 29
Give one strength of ethical naturalism
Moral properties are part of the world
27 of 29
Ethical non-naturalism
Ethical statements express propositions that cannot be reduced to non-ethical properties. No way to define good/bad.
28 of 29
Is-ought gap
Hume; can't make logical move from fact to opinion
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Good cannot be defined.

Back

Naturalistic fallacy

Card 3

Front

Moral statements are objectively true or false.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Moral statements can't be proved to be true or false

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Moral statements are expressions of feelings

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Ethics resources »