memory experiments

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  • Created by: EClou
  • Created on: 02-05-15 16:28
what were Peterson and Peterson investigating?
the duration of short term memory - systematically study how long info is retained in STM when there is no verbal rehearsal
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how did they do this study?
they took 24 students, the experimenter gave them a nonsense trigram and a 3 digit no., the student counted backwards in 3s from this number for 3, 6,9,12,15,18secs and then had to recall the trigram, they had 2 practices and 8 exp. trials
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what were the 2 findings?
1. the shorter the interval between presentation and recall the greater the number of accurately recalled trigrams, 2. 90% remembered at 3s, 2% remembered at 18s
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give the three conclusions
1. info stays in STM for less than 18s if verbal rehearsal is prevented, 2. some info can disappear after just 3s, 3. STM has a v. short duration if verbal rehearsal is prevented.
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give three criticisms of this experiment
1. not a representative sample used, 2. students may be more prone to demand characteristics, 3. lacks ecological validity as you cant apply it to real life because this is not the way that memory is used in real life.
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who investigated the duration of long term memory?
Bahrick et al
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what were the aims of this experiment?
to compare verbal and visual LTM through investigation in a natural setting using personally significant memories
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who were the ps?
400 ps aged 17-74
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what three tests were the ps given?
1. free recall, 2. photo recognition consisting of 50 photos of which some were in ps yearbook, 3. name recognition test
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what are 3 findings of this experiment?
1. ps tested within 15yrs of graduation were 90% accurate in visual and verbal, 2. after 48yrs - 80% for name and 70% for photo, 3. after 15yrs free recall - 60% accrete, after 48yrs - 30%
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give 3 conclusions of this experiment.
1. evidence that LTM can last for up to 57yrs, 2. theres loss of memory over time, 3. verbal recall almost as good as visual
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give 2 strengths of this experiment
1. ecologically valid, 2. very representative sample used
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give a weakness of this experiment
lack of control as some people may have kept in touch with their high school friends
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what is the technical term for this
a confounding variable
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what did Jacobs experiment on?
the capacity of STM
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how did he do this?
devised the serial digit span - ps presented with series of items and then they must repeat them back in the correct order
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what two things did he do for ensure that there were no confounding variables?
he didn't use the letter W or the number 7 as they are both multiple syllables, he also read he items in a metronome
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what were the 4 findings of this experiment?
1. ps recalled more numbers than letters, 2. average digit span was 9.3 items, 3. average letter span was 7.3 items, 4. digit span increased with age - 8yrs -6.6, 19yrs -8.6
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what are the 2 conclusions of this experiment?
STM has a limited capacity - 5-9 items, digits may be easier because there are less of them and age may increase span due to increased capacity/better strategies
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give a strength of this experiment
it is reliable as many other studies have shown that the capacity of STM is around 4-9 items
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give 3 criticisms of this experiment
1. capacity can be explained in other ways eye chunking, 2. individual diffs, 3. performance can be affected by other variables e.g repeating out loud.
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what did simon determine about chunking?
people have shorter spans for larger chunks than smaller ones
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what did baddely et al define?
the word-length effect - people can remember more short words than longer ones.
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what did conrad do?
showed ps a random sequence of 6 consonants by projecting them on a screen in a rapid sequence after which they had to immediately write down the sequence
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what were the 2 conditions in this experiment?
A: acoustically similar, B: acoustically dissimilar
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what did conran find?
there were frequent errors of recall, the majority of which were from condition A
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what are 3 conclusions of this experiment
1. encoding is acoustic in STM, 2. visually presented info is converted to acoustic code, 3. mistakes are based on acoustic conversion.
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give a criticism of this experiment
individual differences
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who looked at encoding in STM and LTM?
Baddeley
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what were his aims?
to find evidence supporting the finding that people make acoustic errors, to investigate if LTM is affected by these errors, to investigate whether either STM or LTM are affected by semantic errors
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what was used in the experiment?
4 lists - A: acoustically similar, B: acoustically dissimilar, C: semantically similar, D: acoustically dissimilar
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what happened to the ps in the first part of this experiment?
they were split into 4 groups, each group heard A/B/C/D (5 words each) and had to record them in the correct order immediately afterwards
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what happened to the ps in the second part of this experiment?
split into 4 groups and each heard one word list containing 10 words followed by a 20min retention interval where the ps performed another task then they were asked to recall the list
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what were the findings of the experiment?
in part 1 ps with A performed worst (55% recall compared to 75% for B,C,D) in part 2 ps with C performed worst (50% recall compared to 70% for A,B,D)
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what is the conclusion of this experiment?
part 1 shows words are recalled in terms of their sounds - indicates encoding in STM is acoustic, in part 2 it showed that words in LTM are recalled semantically
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give 2 criticisms of this experiment
1. there are experiments with contradictory evidence - that encoding in STM can also be visual, 2. LTM involves many types of memory e.g. episodic.
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who created the multi-store model?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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give the first bit of research the supports the MSM
Ganzer and Cunitz
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what did they suggest and what did it consist of?
the serial position effect consisting of the primacy effect - things transferred to LTM at the beginning, sand the recency effect - things still in the STM at the end.
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what specifically did they do to come up with this?
ps were presented with 20 items one at a time and then asked to remember as many as they could which tended to be the ones at the beginning of the list and a that end
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what was periling providing evidence for?
sensory memory
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how did he do this?
he presented ps with a grid of letters for 50milliseconds and then asked them to recall them, they only remembered a couples however they were aware that there were other letters in the grid
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who provided evidence STM and LTM are not unitary stores?
Shallice and Warrington
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who hypothesised the WMM?
Baddeley and Hitch
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what did Baddeley, Thomson and Buchanan do?
gave ps visual presentations of word lists containing 5 words with brief exposures, ps had to record them in order - A: one-syllable words, B: 2 syllable words
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findings
shorter words had a better average recall than longer words - the capacity of the phonological loop is determined by the length of time not the no. of items (1.5s)
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give a methodological criticism
1. - internal validity compromised by the confounding variable - longer words are less familiar than shorter ones
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who provided evidence for the visuo-spacial sketchpad and how?
Baddeley, Grant, White and Thomson ps completed a visual tracking task whilst 1. describing the angles on a letter and 2. a verbal task
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findings
task 1 + tracking task is harder than with task 2 as task one competes for the same limited resources.
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who found evidence for the central executive?
Baddeley - ps generated a random number sequence by pressing number keys on a keyboard (requires attention) they did this or this paired with alphabet/counting/A1B2C3etc
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findings
random number sequence became less random when combined with task three as this required more concentration (A1, B2, C3, D4, E5) because both were competing for the same central executive resources
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what is this supported by?
Bunge
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who supported the weakness of the WMM that it doesn't account for musical memory?
Berz
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who aimed to investigate the accuracy of memory after witnessing a car accident and to see if leading questions distort the accuracy of an eyewitness' immediate recall?
Loftus and Palmer
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what was the procedure?
45 students shown films of 7 different car accidents after each they were given qest. to describe the accident, there was one critical question
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what was the critical qu?
how fast were the cars going when they HIT/SMASHED/BUMPED/CONTACTED/COLLIDED with eachother
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give 3 findings
groups given SMASHED estimated 41mph, CONTACTED estimated 32mph, COLLIDED, estimated 39mph, BUMPED estimated 38mph and BUMPED estimated 34mph
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what is a conclusion of this experiment?
for of question has a significant effect on the memory
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give 3 criticisms
1. lack ecological validity, 2. ps not emotionally aroused, 3. demand characteristics
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what did lofts and Zanni do?
ps watched a film of a car accident and were then asked if they saw A/THE broken headlight
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findings?
THE - 17% yes, A - 7% yes
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one criticism
lab experiment - lacks ecological valitidty
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who interviewed 110 real witnesses to bank robberies?
Christianson and Hubinette
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what did they find?
witnesses who had been threatened had more detailed and accurate recall than those who were onlookers and were less emotionally aroused this was true even 15m later
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what are the 2 possible conclusions from this experiment?
emotional arousal improves recall...or research confounds emotional arousal and how close a witness was to the "action"
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who investigated how memory is reconstructed when recall is repeated over a period of weeks/months and how cultural expectations affect memory leading to predictable distortions?
Bartlett
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what was his procedure?
"repeated reproductions" - showed p story/simple drawing and asked them to reproduce it after e.g. 15mins the days, then weeks, then months, then years - stimulus material belonged to different culture to ps who didn't know the purpose of the study
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findings
ps reme,bered different parts of the stories
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what transformations did Bartlett observe?
story was shortened due to omissions, language was changed e.g canoe to boat, recalled version became fixed even though there were slight variations with each recall
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give 2 conclusions
transformations made material easier to remember, people don't remember details but fragments which they reconstruct using their knowledge of social situations
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who found that recall was improved by schema and how?
Bewehr and Treyens - ps waited in an office room with some office-like objects e.g. desk, and some non office-like objects eg skull - ps remembered more office-like objects due to their schema of an office
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who found that schemas hindered recall and how?
Allport and Postman - ps showed image of a white man threatening black man with a razor on he train, when asked to recall image ps "remembered" the black man threatening the white man with the razor.
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who did a lab study on the weapons effect and how?
Loftus - ps seated outside lab one group heard an amicable disagreement and a man emerged holding a pen, the other group heard and angry argument followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture and a man emerging with a bloody knife
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what were the findings and conclusion?
ps from the second group identified the man less accurately because their focus was on the knife rather than the mans face due to anxiety
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give 2 ethical issues with this experiment
1. deception, 2. psychological harm
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give an experiment that looks ion the effect of age on EWT
Poole and Lindsay - kids aged 3-8 watched a science demonstration afterwards their parents read them stories with some of the same and some novel info - children then questioned about the demonstration - the kids added novel info into orig. memories
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what happened after this
kids asked to think v carefully about where they had gotten their info from - some of the older kids revised account and extracted post-event info, but younger kids couldn't
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what is the name for what the children were asked to do after their first account?
source monitoring
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give the name of one other study that supports this one
parker and carranza
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who developed the cognitive interview technique and how did they support it with evidence?
Geisalman et al - showed 3 groups of ps videos of simulated crime 1. cognitive interview, 2. standard police interview, 3. interview with hypnosis - CI performed best
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based on who's original research and what did they then do to support CI?
Fisher et al 0 - in Miami real police trained to use CI techniques with witnesses of real crimes and found it increased amount of info recalled
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who found something that revealed a weakness of CI?
Koehnken et al - whilst witnesses questioned with CI recalled 34% more correct info, they also recalled more incorrect info than the standard technique
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what did Kebbel et al find?
officers found that CI took too ling so they just used RE and CR than CP and RO
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who backs this?
Milne and Bull
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give 3 issues with research into CI
1. hard to evaluate as it is not 1 but 4 techniques and different forces use different parts so its hard to compare findings, 2. its often researched in a lab with volunteers who aren't emotionally aroused + they see the whole incident so no eco val
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give 2 pieces of evidence for the dual coding hypothesis
1. Paivio - ps could recall concrete nouns better than abstract words, 2. Bower - ps given card with 2 unrelated words group 1 had to memorise them group 2 had to produce a linking image - 2 = 80% recall 1= 45% recall
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give the names of 2 studies tat support the encoding specificity principle
Geiselman and Glenny and Abernethy
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what did Jerabeck and Standing find and what is the scientific name for this?
that if students imagined the original learning environment had better recall - this is called CONTEXT-DEPENDENT MEMORY
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who found that ps who learnt lists of words whilst pedalling on a exercise bike remembered them better when exercising again than when at rest and what is the scientific name for this?
Miles and Hardman - STATE-DEPENDENT MEMORY
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who found that active e.g. semantic learning produces better retention using lists of words with 4 different groups who each had a different task?
Craik
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Card 2

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how did they do this study?

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they took 24 students, the experimenter gave them a nonsense trigram and a 3 digit no., the student counted backwards in 3s from this number for 3, 6,9,12,15,18secs and then had to recall the trigram, they had 2 practices and 8 exp. trials

Card 3

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what were the 2 findings?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

give the three conclusions

Back

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Card 5

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give three criticisms of this experiment

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