memory and forgetting incomplete

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who was msm created by?
atkinson and shiffrin in 1968
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what does msm generally assume?
that memory is passive and there are separate cognitive methods by which it is used.
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what are the 3 different memory stores in msm?
sensory, stm, ltm
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what is sensory memory?
it allows us to pay attention to one thing while our brains are also aware and able to process events in the wider surroundings.
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what is iconic store?
where visual images are kept for a short period, it helps us integrate our visual experience. Sperling did a study in 1960 and found that visual memory generally lasts about half a second.
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what is echoic store?
where auditory senses are kept for a short period. Baddeley carried our 2 studies in echoic memory for short and long term memory formation.
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how do things get into stm?
either directly from external senses or recalled from ltm.
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what does 'thinking' as an act contain?
switching of items to and from ltm.
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how do memories stay in stm?
through constant attention and rehearsal.
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what is memory formed in?
chunks.
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what is ltm?
where all of our permanent memories are stored.
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what did baddeley believe about long term memories?
that they are encoded in semantic code (understanding).
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what are the two types of retrieval?
recall and recognition.
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what is recall?
where you deliberately recall something by thinking of it alone, getting back a memory is recall.
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what is recognition?
an observation that triggers a memory.
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what are the types of long term memory?
declarative (explicit), episodic (autobiographical), semantic memory, procedural (non-declarative, implicit).
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what is declarative (explicit) memory?
knowledge of facts and events e.g. capital of france.
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what is episodic (autobiographical) memory?
memories of periods of time e.g. what you did on christmas day.
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what is semantic memory?
knowledge of concepts and meanings e.g. difference between bear and bare.
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what is procedural (non-declarative, implicit) memory?
knowledge of how to do things e.g. skills and abilities, making a cup of tea
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what is the capacity of sensory store?
massive use of 5 senses a once.
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how long do things last in sensory memory?
a few seconds.
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what is the destination of items that enter sensory store?
stm or forgotten.
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what is the encoding mechanism for sensory store?
sense specific.
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what is the capacity of stm?
7+/-2
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how long do things last in stm?
up to a few mins.
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what is the destination of things that enter stm?
ltm or forgotten.
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what is the encoding mechanism of stm?
acoustic/auditory/sound.
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what is the capacity of ltm?
unlimited.
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how long do things last in ltm?
forever.
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what is the destination of things that enter ltm?
stm or forgotten.
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what is the encoding mechanism of
semantic (meaning).
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what is the primacy effect?
where subjects tend to recall the first words of the list which indicates what the first words entered stm and had time to be rehearsed and passed on to ltm.
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what is the recency effect?
where subjects tend to recall the words from the end of the list which is thought to be due to recall from the stm store.
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what is a criticism of msm?
too rigid/simplistic, doesn't consider the type of info taken into memory, doesn't explain why info changes in coding from one memory store to another.
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who created the lop theory?
craik and lockhart.
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what does lop say about separate memory structures and ltm?
it rejects the idea of separate memory structures and it states that rehearsal alone does not account for ltm, depth of processing determines whether info is stored over a long period or short period.
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what are the different levels of processing and their definitions?
lowest levels: recognising the stimulus in terms of its physical appearance (physical processing)
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Card 2

Front

what does msm generally assume?

Back

that memory is passive and there are separate cognitive methods by which it is used.

Card 3

Front

what are the 3 different memory stores in msm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is sensory memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is iconic store?

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