memory and forgetting

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who was msm created by?
atkinson and shiffrin in 1968
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what does msm generally assume?
that memory is passive and there are separate cognitive methods by which it is used.
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what are the 3 different memory stores in msm?
sensory, stm, ltm
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what is sensory memory?
it allows us to pay attention to one thing while our brains are also aware and able to process events in the wider surroundings.
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what is iconic store?
where visual images are kept for a short period, it helps us integrate our visual experience. Sperling did a study in 1960 and found that visual memory generally lasts about half a second.
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what is echoic store?
where auditory senses are kept for a short period. Baddeley carried our 2 studies in echoic memory for short and long term memory formation.
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how do things get into stm?
either directly from external senses or recalled from ltm.
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what does 'thinking' as an act contain?
switching of items to and from ltm.
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how do memories stay in stm?
through constant attention and rehearsal.
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what is memory formed in?
chunks.
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what is ltm?
where all of our permanent memories are stored.
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what did baddeley believe about long term memories?
that they are encoded in semantic code (understanding).
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what are the two types of retrieval?
recall and recognition.
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what is recall?
where you deliberately recall something by thinking of it alone, getting back a memory is recall.
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what is recognition?
an observation that triggers a memory.
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what are the types of long term memory?
declarative (explicit), episodic (autobiographical), semantic memory, procedural (non-declarative, implicit).
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what is declarative (explicit) memory?
knowledge of facts and events e.g. capital of france.
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what is episodic (autobiographical) memory?
memories of periods of time e.g. what you did on christmas day.
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what is semantic memory?
knowledge of concepts and meanings e.g. difference between bear and bare.
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what is procedural (non-declarative, implicit) memory?
knowledge of how to do things e.g. skills and abilities, making a cup of tea
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what is the capacity of sensory store?
massive use of 5 senses a once.
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how long do things last in sensory memory?
a few seconds.
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what is the destination of items that enter sensory store?
stm or forgotten.
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what is the encoding mechanism for sensory store?
sense specific.
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what is the capacity of stm?
7+/-2
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how long do things last in stm?
up to a few mins.
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what is the destination of things that enter stm?
ltm or forgotten.
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what is the encoding mechanism of stm?
acoustic/auditory/sound.
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what is the capacity of ltm?
unlimited.
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how long do things last in ltm?
forever.
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what is the destination of things that enter ltm?
stm or forgotten.
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what is the encoding mechanism of
semantic (meaning).
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what is the primacy effect?
where subjects tend to recall the first words of the list which indicates what the first words entered stm and had time to be rehearsed and passed on to ltm.
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what is the recency effect?
where subjects tend to recall the words from the end of the list which is thought to be due to recall from the stm store.
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what is a criticism of msm?
too rigid/simplistic, doesn't consider the type of info taken into memory, doesn't explain why info changes in coding from one memory store to another.
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who created the lop theory?
craik and lockhart.
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what does lop say about separate memory structures and ltm?
it rejects the idea of separate memory structures and it states that rehearsal alone does not account for ltm, depth of processing determines whether info is stored over a long period or short period.
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what are the different levels of processing and their definitions?
lowest levels: recognising the stimulus in terms of its physical appearance (physical processing)
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what did hyde & jenkins say?
revision is unnecessary, intention to learn is unnecessary.
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what did craik & tulving find?
17% remembered info rehearsed at lowest level, 37% at middle, 65% at deepest level
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what are the key points of the theory?
it recognises encoding as active, it has practical explanations, it emphasises that recall is influenced by how information is encoded.
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what are the criticisms of the theory?
it is vague and circular, too much emphasis on acquisition, doesn't really explain why semantic processing is better.
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who created wmm?
baddeley and hitch in 1974.
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what are the main features of the model?
central executive, visual-spatial sketch pad, phonological loop.
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what does the wmm focus on?
stm. it reinforces the active nature of the short term store, 'working memory' refers to a system for short term maintenance and manipulation of info.
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what does the central executive do?
it focuses and switches attention, co-ordinates the subsystems and connects working memory with ltm.
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what are the two components of the visual-spatial sketchpad?
visual component and spatial component.
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what does the visual component deal with?
objects and features such as shapes and colours.
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what does the spatial component deal with?
locations and movements in space e.g. finding your way around town.
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what are the two components of the phonological loop?
phonological store and articulatory rehearsal process.
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what does the phonological store do?
it holds auditory memory traces for a few seconds before fading (often called inner ear)
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what does the articulatory rehearsal process do?
it is essentially sub-vocal speech and has a limited capacity of about 3-4 items (often called the inner voice).
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what is the support for the phonological loop?
studies have shown that similar sounding letters are recalled less well than dissimilar letters, similarity of sound in words also has a negative effect on recall although the similarity of meaning in words is unimportant.
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what is the support for word-length effect?
research findings suggest that short words are remembered better than long words. short words can be silently articulated faster than longer words and therefore more of them can be articulated in the time before the trace decays.
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what is the effect of articulatory suppression?
if participants are asked to say something out loud at the same time as rehearsing material in a phonological loop then memory for the rehearsal material is impaired.
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what is the fourth component of the wmm?
the episodic buffer.
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when was it added and by whom?
baddeley in 2000.
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why was it considered necessary to add it?
problems were beginning to emerge with the original model as the three-component model had difficulty explaining the interaction between working memory and long term memory.
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what was there an absence of in the original model?
a mechanism allowing the sub-systems to interact.
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what is the episodic buffer?
a limited capacity store that binds together information from a number of fields - verbal, visual, spatial and chronological information. it can access the different sub-systems and conscious awareness.
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who carried out a study to investigate the nature of the phonological loop in working memory?
paulesu et al. 1993.
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what did he find?
rehearsal of letter sounds and letter memory uses different parts of the brain.
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what are the criticisms of the model?
it is impossible to directly observe the components of the model and existence has to be inferred from tasks, central exec is difficult to study as it is involved in all tasks.
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what does the decay theory say about forgetting?
forgetting is caused by the passage of time.
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what is an engram?
a pattern of neural activity.
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name one study that supports decay and one that doesn't support decay
ebbinghaus supports, waugh & norman doesn't.
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what does retrieval failure argue about forgetting?
that the memory is still available but we can't access it.
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what did tulving & pearlstone find about retrieval failure?
that if cues are used more is likely to be remembered.
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what does displacement theory argue?
that info is displaced/pushed out by new info.
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where does the support for displacement come from?
free recall, primacy and recency effects.
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has displacement been neglected as a cause of forgetting?
yes.
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what is interference theory?
interference from other similar info erodes out memory traces.
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what are the 2 types of interference?
proactive and retroactive.
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what is proactive interference?
when what we already know interferes with what we are learning.
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what is retroactive interference?
when what you have learned is interfered with by subsequent learning, something from the past is over written.
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what study disproves interference?
jenkins & dallebach.
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what does lack of consolidation theory say?
for info to go from stm to ltm it must go through consolidation where stm is repeatedly activated leading to permanent changes in the nervous system and the formation of an engram, theory suggests forgetting is due to memory never being made.
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what is motivated forgetting theory suggest?
that some memories are 'pushed' into the unconscious to protect us from being aware of them.this avoids us being upset by them but it can affect behaviour.
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who provided evidence for this theory?
levinger & clark (1961) they demonstrated experimentally that people recall fewer negative word associations than neutral ones, suggests that defence mechanisms do protect us from remembering unpleasant info.
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what is a criticism of the studies used for motivated forgetting?
they are unrealistic compared to traumatic events that people might repress in real life.
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what is motivated forgetting also called?
repression.
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which theory has been neglected as a cause for forgetting?
displacement theory.
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which theory is unfalsifiable?
retrieval failure.
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Card 2

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what does msm generally assume?

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that memory is passive and there are separate cognitive methods by which it is used.

Card 3

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what are the 3 different memory stores in msm?

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Card 4

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what is sensory memory?

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Card 5

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what is iconic store?

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