Memory and Decision

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Tversky & Kahneman (1974)
Heuristics regarded as a "short cut". Use when cognitive resources for algorithms not available
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Mikinki (1979)
Probability could have been adaptive, proportion of population by proportion of food sources. Seen in fish.
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Greenberg (1986)
Juges gave harsher sentences when displayed with harshest first. Anchoring Heuristic
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Northcraft & Neale (1987)
Surveyors for buyers used asking price as an anchor, can change by 10%
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Chickain (1980)
Dual process model, environmental cues rather than looking at situation logically
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Shah & Oppenheimer (2008)
Table of five main heuristics. Eg. Anchoring = Easy to access and eliminates other options
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Loftus and Palmer (1975)
Hit vs Smashed, more liekly to have seen glass. Misleading information effect
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Fischoff (1975)
Nixon's 1972 visit to china and russia. 75% remembered giving higher probabilities for what actually happened than what they really did.
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Rosenhan (66)
Deck of 70% smiley faces or 70% sad faces. aAsked to guess the percentage, 68% happy vs 54% sad, positive outcome effect
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Rothbort (1970)
Canadians against Quebeck predicted it less liekly to happen, wishful thinking
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Longer (75)
Lottery cards with footballers, those able to choose their cards asked for 4x more when a stooge requested to buy it
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Weinstein (1980)
Gamblers throw dice with more force when trying to get high numbers
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Tversky & Kahnman (1975)
Flight instructors claimed that after good performances the next were usually bad and after bad the next was usually good, regardless of reinforcements
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Nisbett & Ross (1980)
Measures of crisis predict greater impact, causing superstitious behaviour
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Arkes (1985)
Airline company £10 million, but when 90% done, competitor releases a better model. 85% would invest a further 10% of profits in plane.
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Kahnman & Snell (1990)
Ate yoghurt of 8 days. No corrolation to prections of how much they will like it and if they do like it. Thos whom plan lunches in advance plan much more variety than those choosing day to day
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Shaw (1932)
Better performance by groups to error check, thought simulation and bias collection
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Lorge & Soloman (1955)
Groups should always be better as (1-(1-p) x (1-p) x (1-p)) is greater than p alone
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Sniezak (1989)
% students asked to estimate book sales, best prediction when select a representative. Heads together better than alone!
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Hill (1982)
Less ideas in group brain storming than alone
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Restle & Davis (1962)
Interaction decreases attention for ideas
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Janis (1982)
Deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgements from group pressure = group think
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Tetlock (1985)
We do minimum to satisfy those that are help accountable
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Michaels (1982)
Social facilitation in pool playing
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Staw (1974)
Made an investment in something predicted to fail, invested more to appear as though they had thought really hard about it
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Knack & Keefer (1997)
Correlation between economic growth and % of those whom generally trust others
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Stevenson & Wolfers (2011)
Of great importance as trust in our country is declining, due to scandals, politicians ext?
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Berg (1995)
The trust game
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Koford (1998)
Bulgaria are very trusting, 70% invested, 150% return. Lack of rust in authority over there so they rely on one another more?
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Ensminger (2000)
Low trust and trust worthiness in Kenyans. Highly corrupt country, reflect society?
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Jacobson & Sadreih (1996)
Well aware of moral hazard even when anonymous, one trail game
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Keren (1998)
Trust is low when risk and temptation is high. Weak gender effect, men less trustworthy
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Baucham (2000)
2 investors, 2 trustees, repay the other investor. less invested and less returned, Weakens any emotional tie?
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Fehr & Gachter (2000)
When wages high, workers work harder. Gift exchange
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Ferh (1999)
Firms hire those asking for higher wages
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Baron (2001)
175 chains of Sillicon vally. Those based on commitment blue prints were way more successful
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Mikinki (1979)


Probability could have been adaptive, proportion of population by proportion of food sources. Seen in fish.

Card 3


Greenberg (1986)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Northcraft & Neale (1987)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Chickain (1980)


Preview of the front of card 5
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