Memory

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Capacity
The amount of information that can be retained.
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Duration
How long information can be retained.
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Encoding
Change the form of information so it can be stored and later recalled.
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George Miller- capacity (1956)
7 + / - 2
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Joseph Jacobs- duration
Digit span technique- STM. Digits = 9.3 items. Letters = 7.3 items.
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Simon- 1974
Size of chunk effects how much remembered.
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Cowan - 2001
Reviewed past research. Limited to 4 chunks.
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Peterson & Peterson
Aim: To investigate the duration of short-term memory, and provide empirical evidence for the multi-store model.
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Peterson & Peterson
Procedure: 24 students as participants. Had to recall meaningless trigrams, to prevent rehearsal they used Brown peterson technique. Had different interval times of 3,6,9,12,18 secs.
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Peterson & Peterson
Findings: Longer intervals meant less trigrams recalled. With 3 secs 80% recalled accurately. With 18 secs less than 10%
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Peterson & Peterson
Conclusion: STM has limited duration when rehearsal prevented. Supports the MSM.
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Multi-store Model keys points for AO1
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968). Sensory Memory, original form, large capacity, short duration. STM uses maintenance rehearsal, to keep info in STM.
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Multi-store Model keys points for AO1
LTM needs elaborative rehearsal to recieve info from STM. Created from previous work by others.
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Case study - HM
Contradicts the MSM as it suggests more than one store in LTM.
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Working memory model - key points for AO1
Baddeley & Hitch. Central executive is the command centre. Visuo-spatial sketchpad, inner eye, it can be manipulated.
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Working memory model - key points for AO1
Phonological loop has two components. Phonological store, the inner ear. Also Articulatory process the inner voice. Episodic Buffer holds info from LTM. All components have short duration and small capacity.
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Card 2

Front

How long information can be retained.

Back

Duration

Card 3

Front

Change the form of information so it can be stored and later recalled.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

7 + / - 2

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Digit span technique- STM. Digits = 9.3 items. Letters = 7.3 items.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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