Memory

Most of the key studies for the meory topic, including the Multi-Store Model, Working Memory Model, Eye Witness Testimony, Cognitive Interview Technique and Capacity and Encoding.

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Devlin Report (1976)
A judge cannot convict only on eyewitness testimony. Police and lawyers should not use leading questions.
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Yuille and Cutshaw (1986)
Used a real armed robbery to test EWT, found that reports were still accurate and matched initial reports much later.
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Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Misleading post event information changes the way information is sorted. 'contacted' vs. 'smashed'.
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Ceci and Brook (1999)
Review of literature on children and EWT. Found that misleading questions, close ended questions, repetitive questions and adult influences affect the reliability of childrens EWT.
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Parker and Carranza (1989)
Compared children to college students in identification of a mock criminal. Child witnesses chose more but made more errors.
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Yarney (1993)
Got 651 adults to recall a young woman they had met 2 mins ago, young and middle adults were more confident than 65+, but no differences in accuracy.
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Memon et al (2003)
When delay is short, no difference between 19-33 and 60-82
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Anastasi and Rhodes (2006)
All groups are better at identifying their own age group, though middle aged and young were more accurate.
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Brigham and Malpass (1985)
Own race bias. The more contact we have witha group the better our memory is for those individuals.
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Clifasefi et al (2006)
Alcohol consumption reduces accuracy of EWT.
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Kohnken et al(1999)
Meta-analysis of 53 studies, showed 34% improvment in correct info generated using CI.
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Mello and Fisher (1996)
Said that 'report anything' was more effective at helping older witnesses to recall information.
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Memon (1994)
Police need quality training for the procedure to be carried out effectively.
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Stein and Memon (2006)
Found that CI was more effective than standard, but used only female cleaners in Brazil.
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Deffenbacher et al (2004) 1st M.A
27 studies, 1727 pps, hgh levels of stress meant fewer faces correctly identified (42%) compared to low stress (54%).
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Deffenbacher et al (2004) 2nd M.A
36 studies, 1946 pps, found average recall of crime scene details was 64% in low stress and 52% in high stress.
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Loftus (1979)
Suggest that as a weapon is present and causes anxiety, increasing focus on weapon and so distracts from other details.
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Johnson and Scott (1976)
Pps who see a man with a weapon are only 33% likely to identify him, the opposite 49%.
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Christianson and Hubinette (1993)
55 real witnesses, those who had been threatened remembered more. Still true 15 months later.
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Yerkes Dodson Law (1908)
The curved relationship between anxiety and EWT, there is an optimum point up to which anxiety increases reliability of EWT.
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Kebbel (1996)
Police officers say CI takes too long.
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Fisher and Geiselman (1992)
Came up with the Cognitive Interview technique.
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Milne and Bull (2002)
Interviewed students and children and found that a combination of 'report everything' and 'mental reinstatement' recall was significantly higher.
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Chase et al (1981) SF
Found a mnemonist remember 80 digits through giving meaning through running times. Had to practise.
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Atkinson and Raugh (1975)
Remembering keyword through visual mnemonics.
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Peterson and Peterson (1959)
When verbal rehearsal is prevented, duration of STM is < 20 seconds.
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Bahrick et al (1975)
Studies on recall of hish school students, 48 years later a 70% recall of of names and faces from photographs.
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Jacobs (1887)
Remember 5-9 digits. (letter less effective, ther's 26 of them to confuse).
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Miller (1959)
Capacity of STM is 7 plus or minus two. Words as well as letters due to chunking.
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Cowan (2001)
A review suggests that STM capacity is limited to 4 chunks.
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Baddely (1996a and 1996b)
STM is encoded acoustically, acoustically similair words are mpre easily confused in STM. In LTM, semantically similair words are confused more often.
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Conrad (1964)
pps more likely to incorrectly recall acoustically similair letters, even visual info is encoded acoustically.
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Brandismote et al (1992)
If verbal rehearsal is prevented, visual encoding can still occur in STM.
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Frost et al (1972)
Long term recall was related to visual as well as semantic coding.
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Nelson and Rothbart (1992)
Evidence of acoustic encoding in LTM.
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Atkinson and Schiffrin (1968)
Proposed the Multi-Store Model of memory.
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Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
The serila position effect, pps recall more towards the beginning and end of lists (support for MSM).
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Beardsley (1997)
The pre-frontal cortex is active during STM tasks. fMRI scans.
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Squire et al (1992)
Hippocampus is engaged when in LTM tasks. fMRI scans.
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HM Case Study
Had a damaged hippocampus, could not form new LT memories but could remeber events before the incident.
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KF Case Study
Short term forgetting of audial info was much greater than visual information. Provides evidence for memory sub-systems in STM.
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Craik and Tulving (1975)
Shallow processing resulted in lower recall than semantic processing. Led to the idea of elaborative rehearsal.
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Ruchkin et al (2003)
When false words are processed there is a lower level of brain activity, indicating that STM knew the difference.
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Logie (1999)
LTM is needed to give semantic meaning to information, so they can't be seperate.
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Baddely et al (1974)
Dual task experiment, pps asked to recall a sequence of digits and perform a verbal reasoning task. They could do both accuratly at the same time, showing that STM must have different stores for different functions.
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Baddely and Hitch (1974)
The WMM, critcal of the MSM.
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Baddely et al (1975)
Pps can recall fewer long-length words. Provides evidence for the phonological loop as it can only hold info rehearsed within two seconds.
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Bunge et al (2000)
Same brain areas were active for single and dual memeory tasks, but more activation for dual task activity. Suggests increased attention is reflected in brain activity.
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Eslinger and Damasio (1985)
Pp with cerbral brain tumour performed well on reasoning tasks but had poor decision making skills. Central Executive is too simple.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Used a real armed robbery to test EWT, found that reports were still accurate and matched initial reports much later.

Back

Yuille and Cutshaw (1986)

Card 3

Front

Misleading post event information changes the way information is sorted. 'contacted' vs. 'smashed'.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Review of literature on children and EWT. Found that misleading questions, close ended questions, repetitive questions and adult influences affect the reliability of childrens EWT.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Compared children to college students in identification of a mock criminal. Child witnesses chose more but made more errors.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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