Memory

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What is the name for the multi-store model?
Information processing.
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What does information processing mean?
The idea that information is processed through a number of stages.
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Give the words for R.O.S.I.E.
R: retrieval, O: output, S: storage, I: Input and E: encoding.
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What does input mean?
The process of data entry.
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What does encoding mean?
The process in which data is changed into another format.
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What does storage mean?
The process in which information is held, ready to be used at a later date.
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What does retrieval mean?
The process in which the information is located and taken out of storage.
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What does output mean?
The process of using data after it has been retrieved.
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What does accessibility problems mean?
Problems retrieving information from storage.
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What does availability problems mean?
Problems with information no longer being stored.
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What is the core theory called?
The multi-store model.
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What does sensory store mean?
Where all immediate information is briefly held unless it is paid attention to.
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What does attention mean?
Where people are ware of information in the memory.
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What does decay mean?
The fading of information over time until it is forgotten.
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What does capacity mean?
The amount of space in the memory.
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What does duration mean?
How long the information lasts in the memory.
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What does displacement mean?
Information is shunted out of storage by new information and so becomes forgotten.
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What does maintenance rehearsal mean?
Repeating information so that it stays in storage temporarily or permanently.
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Describe the multi-store model.
Input, encode, sensory memory, attention, short-term memory, decay/displacement OR maintenance rehearsal then; rehearsal, long-term memory finally; retrieval.
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Give the duration of the STM and the LTM.
20 seconds and unlimited.
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Give the capacity of STM and the LTM.
7+/- 2 and unlimited.
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Give a criticism.
STM and LTM are over simplified - reductionist.
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Give another criticism.
Role of rehearsal simplified - you can remember phone numbers without rehearsal - reductionist.
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Give a final criticism.
Capacity of STM doesn't take into account photographic memories, who can take more than 9 chunks - less generlisable.
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Give the name of the alternative theory.
Levels of processing.
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What does deep processing mean?
The information is encoded and given meaning and understanding because it is interesting - it has been rehearsed. We are more likely to recall this. For example: interested in a book so you will remember the plot.
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What does shallow processing mean?
The information is encoded by it isn't interesting so you don't think about its meaning and understanding. This type of information is usually decayed - not likely to recall. For example, you may remember the colour of a logo but not the name.
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Who did the core theory? Date?
Terry. 2005.
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What was the aim?
To investigate the that a person's memory is affected by time and space.
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Give the participants.
Terry used students - 20.
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Give the IV.
When the participants recalled straight after the 3 minutes or after an English test.
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Give the DV.
How many adverts remembered.
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Give the design.
Repeated measured design.
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Give the procedure.
Used commercials 10 months old and no more than 30 seconds long, where he showed them to a group of students. They where asked to recall all the ones they remembered immediately and after a delay.
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Give the results.
There is a primacy and recency effect - serial position effect.They could remember the first and last ones.
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Give a criticism.
Practice effect, terry used a repeated measured design so they would've remembered some from the first time they did it - unvailid.
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Give another criticism.
It was a lab experiment so it wouldn't be realistic. Asking people to recall the TV adverts is realistic and so there would be no meaning behind it; won't try to remember - lacks ecological validity.
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Give a final criticism.
It was all done in one culture, culture bias - less generlisable to whole population.
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Give the name of the applications.
Memory aids.
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Describe use of cues.
This is used in crime scene to get people to recall what happened. Also, they could be used to remember something for an exam like: mnemonics. There is context and a situation that helps people remember what they've learnt. Another way:using a smell
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Give two other ways for memory aids.
Mind mapping and use of imagery.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does information processing mean?

Back

The idea that information is processed through a number of stages.

Card 3

Front

Give the words for R.O.S.I.E.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does input mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does encoding mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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