Memory Theories and Explanations

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  • Created by: HarveyCB
  • Created on: 10-10-18 13:51
What is the Multi-Store Model
A model of memory designed in 1972 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shriffin that suggest there are three memory stores
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What are the different stores of memory in the Multi-Store Model
Sensory store, short term store and long term store
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How does information enter the sensory store
It is encoded
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How is memory encoded in the sensory store
As all the seperate senses
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What is the capacity of the sensory store
A lot of information
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What is the duration of the sensory store
Approximately two seconds
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What happens to memories in the sensory store
They decay, or they are transferred to the short term store
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How does information enter the short term store
It is given attention (transferred from the sensory store)
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How does information stay in the short term memory store
Through rehearsal
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How is information encoded in the short term memory store
Mainly auditory
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How long is information stored in the short term memory store
Up to 30 seconds
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What is the capacity of the short term memory store
7±2 items (so 5-9), can be increased by chunking
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What is Millers Magic Number
7±2
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Whats happens to memories in the short term memory store
They decay or are displaced, or they are transferred to the long term memory store
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How does information enter the long term memory store
It is transferred
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How is information encoded in the long term memory store
As semantic, visual and auditory
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How long is information stored in the long term memory store
Potentially forever
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What is the capacity of the long term memory store
Unlimited
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How does information leave the long term memory store
It decays, or is transferred to the short term memory store through retrieval
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What is it called when long term memories fail being transferred to the short term memory store
Retrieval failure
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What are the two types of criticism of the MSM
Reductionist and determinist
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What is the reductionist criticism of the MSM theory
Other research and neuropsychology has found evidence for multiple stores within the STM and LTM
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What is the determinist criticism of the MSM theory
It places too much emphasis on rehearsal vs meaning. Shocking memories go straight to the LTM and researchers found that semantic processing is more important for transference to the LTM
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How did Shiffrin respond to the determinist criticism of the MSM
He added elaborative rehearsal to the model (the use of semantic processing which enables memories to enter the LTM)
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What is reconstructive memory
A theory which suggests that memory is influence by prior experiences and schema, and is not an accurate representation of what happened
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What is a schema
A mental representation of an object or situation, based on prior experience (expectations)
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What was the War of the Ghosts research
Bartlett read a story to participants, and when they were asked to recall it they swapped or left out culturally unfamiliar words which didn't fit into an existing schema
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How does experience relate to reconstructive memory
If our prior experiences affect memory, our recall is likely to be inaccurate, which is why two people may recall an event differently
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How does expectation affect reconstructive memory
There are huge amounts of information that come into our brains, so to deal with it quickly our schemas help us make judgements, that influence our expectations of a situation
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What is confabulation
When you subconsciously fill in the blanks in your memory to create a consistent reconstruction
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What is distortion in the context of memory
When a memory differs from the event that took place
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How do leading questions lead to distortion
They influence a persons answer, by implying a certain response
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What are the different types of criticisms of the reconstructive memory theory
Reductionist, Usefulness, Method and Subjective
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What is the reductionist criticism of reconstructive memory
It focuses on schemas and reconstructing memory as an active process, but doesn't explain how they actually occur in the brain
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What is the usefulness criticism of reconstructive memory
The concept of schemas is to vague to be useful, as they cannot be observed with brain scans, which show activity, not what is being processed
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What is the method criticism of reconstructive memory
The War of the Ghosts research was not conducted using a systematic method, so it could have been affected by many extraneous variables
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What is the subjective criticism of reconstructive memory
This model is very complicated, and hard to test and predict, so it is subjective
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Card 2

Front

What are the different stores of memory in the Multi-Store Model

Back

Sensory store, short term store and long term store

Card 3

Front

How does information enter the sensory store

Back

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Card 4

Front

How is memory encoded in the sensory store

Back

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Card 5

Front

What is the capacity of the sensory store

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