Memory Psychology (Unit 2)

what is the capacity of short term memory? how many items? who proved this?
limited, 5-9 items can be stored, Jacobs, Miller.
1 of 65
what was jacobs study?
tested STm capacity using digit span method, inc. long lists of words/numbers -7/w until could only recall 50%. Found capacity for numbers 9 and capacity for letters 7, so concluded STM capacity limited.
2 of 65
how did miller confirm jacobs research?
reviewed research and concluded that capacity of STM is 7 +/-2 items and suggested the idea of chunking info to increase capacity
3 of 65
what is the duration of short term memory? study for this?
brief, about 30 seconds, peterson and peterson
4 of 65
what was peterson and petersons research?
24 students, 8 trials, each trial consonant syllable to remember i.e YCG & 3 digit number had to count down in 3s. Stop counting after diff times: 3.6,9,12,15,18 (retention interval). 90% recalled after 3 sec, 5% after 18. Said duration STM 20-30 sec
5 of 65
what is the coding of short term memory? study?
mainly acoustic sounds, baddeley
6 of 65
what is the coding of long term memory? study?
mainly semantic (meaning), baddeley
7 of 65
what was baddeley research and what did it prove about the coding of STM and LTM?
75 pps given w/ 1 of 4 word lists & repeat 4 times. Lists ac sim, ac. diff, sem sim, sem diff. Test STM list of words in wrong order & rearrange, to test LTM did same but 20 min interval. STM recall of acoustic sim hardest, LTM recall sem hard.
8 of 65
what is the duration of long term memory? study?
potentially permanent, bahrick
9 of 65
what was Bahrick's research?
diff age range of pps (17-74) had to do memory recall tasks on high skl yr books: photo recognition and free recall. Pps tested within 15yrs of grad = 90% pr & 60% fr. Within 48 yrs = 70% pr, 30% fr. Concluded LTM duration is v long.
10 of 65
what is the capacity of long term memory? what can this be affected by?
potentially unlimited, may be lost due to decay or interference
11 of 65
who was the multi store model established by?
Attkinson and Shiffrin
12 of 65
what is the concept of the MSM and what is the process?
it is a theory about how memory works, info goes into S.R unprocessed through smell, tactile, auditory & visual. Info moves to STM when we pay attention to something, and moves to LTM through rehearsal.
13 of 65
how long does it take for someone to forget something in their STM according to the multi store model?
30 seconds
14 of 65
what is the capacity of the sensory register in MSM?
large capacity
15 of 65
what is the capacity of short term memory in MSM?
limited (5-9 items)
16 of 65
what is the capacity of long term memory in MSM?
unlimited by may be lost due to decay or interference
17 of 65
what is the coding of the sensory register?
it is not coded, it has a raw unprocessed format
18 of 65
what is the coding of STM according to MSM?
it is at first coded in a raw format and then acoustic/visual info is then encoded
19 of 65
what is the coding of LTM according to MSM?
mostly stored in a semantic form but can be visual or acoustic
20 of 65
what is the duration of the sensory register?
limited duration (milliseconds)
21 of 65
what is the duration of the STM according to MSM? how is it extended?
maximum of 30 seconds, extended by maintenance rehearsal
22 of 65
what is the duration of LTM according to MSM? how does this differ?
potentially unlimited, but items that are better coded usually have longer duration
23 of 65
supporting research of MSM theory?
1) Clive wearing: couldn't remember question just asked but could wife's name = different stores 2) Glanzer & Cunitz: pps recall words at start/end of list, end = STM & start = LTM, different stores & maintenance rehearsal between LTM and STM
24 of 65
opposing research of MSM theory?
1) supporting research lacks eco.valid. lab research artificial (trigrams) = not representative as usually form meaningful memories 2)opposing research = case of K.F = digit span poor when read to but good when read to self = different stores in STM
25 of 65
who was the working memory model by?
Baddely and Hitch
26 of 65
what is the working memory model a theory for?
how the short term memory works
27 of 65
what are the four main features of the WMM?
central executive, episodic buffer, phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad
28 of 65
what are the features of the central executive?
it is a filter and decides which info received by sense organs isn't attended to, monitors incoming data, makes decisions & allocates slave systems to tasks. Flexible & processes info from any modality, limited capacity (1 strand of info at a time)
29 of 65
what are the features of the visuo spatial sketchpad? (capacity, coding, types of info stored etc)
stores visual and spatial info (what things look like and where they're located), limited capacity (3-4 objects), codes things visually and spatially
30 of 65
what type of information does the phonological loop store?
auditory information
31 of 65
what are the two parts of the phonological loop?
the phonological store and the articulatory control process?
32 of 65
what is the function of the phonological store and what is it's capacity?
briefly stores acoustically coded items, limited capacity
33 of 65
what is the function of the articulatory control process and what is it's capacity?
rehearsal of items stored in phonological store, 2 second capacity
34 of 65
what are the features of the episodic buffer? (info it stores, capacity etc.)
it's a temporary store for info & integrates visual, spatial and verbal info. It provides the link to LTM and processes info from any modality. Limited capacity (4 chunks at a time)
35 of 65
supporting research for WMM?
1) Case of KF: low digit span when read to, better when read himself = different stores for auditory and visual in STM. 2) Baddeley: pps found difficult to recall long words than short ones, suggests phonological loop = capacity of around 2 secs.
36 of 65
opposing research for WMM?
1) supporting research lacks generalisability (Case of KF) as brain damaged patients have suffered traumatic experiences so not representative of whole population
37 of 65
who suggested that there were different types of LTM?
Tulving
38 of 65
what are the different types of LTM?
semantic, procedural, episodic.
39 of 65
what is procedural memory?
memory of actions and skills (e.g riding a bike), recalled without conscious awareness (non declarative memory), usually difficult to explain how to do it.
40 of 65
what is semantic memory?
contains knowledge of the world we've learnt (e.g what food your friend likes), these aren't time stamped and are less personal, they're declarative memories (conscious effort to remember)
41 of 65
what is episodic memory?
our ability to recall events in our lives (e.g a concert), time stamped, memory of a single event includes several episodes (places, people etc), declarative memories (conscious effort)
42 of 65
supporting research for types of LTM?
Clive wearing: could play piano (procedural memory) but can't remember events from last week (episodic memory)
43 of 65
disadvs of types of LTM?
opposing research lacks generalisability as only concerns results of one person. also lacks internal validity as lacks control as uncertain which part of memory is affected (may be part which affects attention) unclear whether IV directly affects DV
44 of 65
what is the general concept of the interference theory?
explains why we forget things from our LTM and suggests that memories conflict with each other causing confusion between new/old memories (more likely to forget if its similar info)
45 of 65
what are the two types of interference?
pro active interference and retro active interference
46 of 65
what is retro active interference?
when new memories conflict with old ones (e.g if you learn your new number you may forget your old one)
47 of 65
what is proactive interference?
when old memories interfere with new ones, e.g if you learn german first you may struggle to learn french after
48 of 65
1st supporting research for interference theory? (M and M)
1) McGeoch and Mcdonald: investigated retro-active, pps remember 10 words (2 syllables) until 100% recall , given another list (synonyms, antonyms, unrelated, nonsense, 3 digit numbers or no new words). asked recall 1st list, synonyms = worst recall.
49 of 65
2nd supporting research for interference theory? (S)
1) Schmidt et al: retro-active interference, 70/100 random from school data base, given blank map of area of old school, roads placed by numbers & ask recall road names. 25% never moved, pps who moved had worst recall, new memories affect old ones
50 of 65
advs and disadvs of supporting research for interference theory? (S)
advs: eco.valid as ppl may try to recall st names in real life & random so not biased, disadvs: all went to 1 school so only looks at 1 type of person, not generalisable
51 of 65
advs and disadvs of supporting research for interference theory? (M & M)
advs: lab experiment so high control and high internal validity (controls extran. variables & length of words), disadvs: low eco.valid as artificial materials, unrepresentative of real life
52 of 65
what is retrieval failure theory?
explains forgetting things from your LTM, suggests we forget because of insufficient cues at time of recall
53 of 65
what are the two types of cues? explain each.
context dependant cues (environmental context can provide cues e.g when and where), state dependent cues: emotional state at time of learning recall
54 of 65
what principle did Tulving suggest relating to the retrieval failure theory? explain.
the encoding specifity principle: if a cue is present when you learn it and recall it, retrieval success is more likely
55 of 65
supporting evidence for retrieval failure theory and disadvs? (G & B)
Godden and Baddeley: context dependent cues, 18 divers learnt a list of words either in water or on ground & asked to recall either on land or water, recall 50% higher when environment was the same for learning and recall. disadvs: lack eco.valid
56 of 65
supporting evidence for retrieval failure theory and disadvs? (C & C)
Carter and Cassaday: state dependant cues, pps learnt words either on ant-histamine drugs (drowsy) or not and had to recall either on drug or not. when there was a mismatch between state the recall was much worse. disadvs: lack eco.valid.
57 of 65
supporting evidence of EWT (leading questions) and disadvs?
Loftus and Palmer: video of car crash & asked speed when it (bumped, smashed etc.) into other car. After week asked whether glass or not...smashed condition wrongly said yes. proves leading q effects EWT. disadvs: no generalisability as pps students
58 of 65
supporting evidence of effects of EWT (post event discussion)? and disadvs?
Gabbert et al: pps shown video of girl stealing money out of wallet, pps recalled events individually or in pairs, pairs told watched same video but watched from different perspectives. 71% recall info they hadn't seen. disadv: demand characteristics
59 of 65
opposing research of effects of EWT (post event discussion)?
Loftus: pps shown video of red purse being stolen and then read a report from a professor containing several errors (purse was brown) & asked what colour purse was. Majority said red, suggests post event discussion doesn't influence EWT.
60 of 65
how does anxiety effect EWT?
anxiety creates arousal in the body which stops us paying attention to important cues so recall is worse
61 of 65
supporting research for effects of anxiety on EWT? and disadvs?
Johnson and Scott: pps thoughts taking part in study, when waiting heard argument. low anx. condition: pen & greasy hands (49% recall). high anx. condition: breaking glass, bloody knife (33% recall). Disadv: unethical, psychological harm & no consent
62 of 65
opposing research for effects of anxiety on EWT? and disadvs?
Pickel: suggests pps focus on weapon bc of surprise not fear, EWT less accurate when raw chicken (high unusual condition) in hairdressers than man with scissors (low unusual condition). disadvs: dem. characteristics, reduced validity
63 of 65
who was the cognitive interview developed by? what is its aim?
Fisher and Geiselman, it is an improvement on the standard police interview as it is based on psychological knowledge
64 of 65
what are the four steps of the cognitive interview? explain.
reinstate the context (picture scene in head and imagine emotions), change perspective (disrupts expectations of setting), reverse order (prevent expectations of how it happened), report everything (small details may trigger significant memories)
65 of 65

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what was jacobs study?

Back

tested STm capacity using digit span method, inc. long lists of words/numbers -7/w until could only recall 50%. Found capacity for numbers 9 and capacity for letters 7, so concluded STM capacity limited.

Card 3

Front

how did miller confirm jacobs research?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the duration of short term memory? study for this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what was peterson and petersons research?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Memory resources »