Memory- PART 2

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 27-04-16 12:46
What are the explanations for forgetting?
Interference + retrieval failure
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What is interference?
When 2 pieces of information conflict with eachother, and one memory disturbs the ability to recall the other
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What does interference result in?
Forgetting one or both of the memories
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When is interference more likely to occur?
When the memories are similar
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Why do we forget information?
Because we can't access information, though it is available
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Why is the information available?
Yes, because when info enters LTM- it's pretty much permanent
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What does interference make harder?
Locating this 'available' information. This is why we forget info
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What is proactive interference?
When previously learn information interferes with newly learnt info
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What is retroactive interference?
When newly learnt information interferes with previously learnt info
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What study supports the theory of retroactive interference?
Underwood + Postman
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Aim of Underwood + Postman's study?
To find out if newly learnt information, interferes with previously learnt info
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What did all participants have to learn?
Word pairs from List A and B
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Additionally, what did Group A have to learn?
Additional word pairs; from List A and List C
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What were the findings?
Group B, that didn't learn an additional list had a more accurate recall of the first list of word pairs
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What does this support?
Retroactive interference
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When is interference worse?
When the information/memories are similar
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What study supports the effects of similarity?
McGeoch + McDonalds
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What additional lists did 5 of the 6 Groups have to learn?
Synonyms, antonyms, unrelated adjectives, nonsense syllables + numbers
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Which condition resulted in the least accurate recall?
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What does this show?
That interference is strongest when information is similar
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Where does most of the evidence for interference come from?
Laboratory studies
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What are the problems with lab studies?
Artifical situations, low mundane realism
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What is a strength of lab studies?
Highly controlled= more valid/accurate results
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Other weaknesses of interference?
Doesn't relate to real-life situations. We may forget info due to stress, lack of attention + rehearsal
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What is retrieval failure?
When information is forgotten because of insufficient cues
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When are cues stored in memory?
At the time when information is learnt, associated cues may be stored at the same time
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Why does it appear that we've forgotten?
Because cues are not available at the time of recall
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Is the information accessible and available?
It is accessible, but not available
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What are cues?
Triggers of information that serve as a reminder allowing us to access a memory
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What are the types of cues?
Meaningfully linked and indirectly linked
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What theory did Tulving come up with?
ESP (encoding specificity principle)
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ESP relates to what cues?
Meaningfully linked ones
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What does ESP state?
If a cue is to help us recall information, it has to be present at the time of encoding and retrieval
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When will there be forgetting, according to ESP?
If cues available at the time of encoding or retrieval are different
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What are not meaningfully/indirectly linked cues?
Cues encoded at the same time as information, but not linked in meaning
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When does context-dependent forgetting occur?
When the environment during recall, is different from the environment you learnt in
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Which two studies support context-dependent forgetting?
Abernathy & Godden + Baddeley
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What did Abernathy do?
Conducted a study on students. They were tested either by their usual teacher, in the teaching room or in a different environment. Then tested
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What did Abernathy find?
The accuracy of recall was best in condition of usual teacher and teaching room
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Why was it better?
Because familiar things, acted as memory cues
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What did Godden + Baddeley do?
They conducted a recall test on divers, that learnt lists of words in different conditions
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What did they find?
When the learning environment matched the recall one, recall was better
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How much lower was recall in non-matching conditions?
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What is state-dependent forgetting?
Occurs when your psychological state during recall is different from when learning
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Who studied state-dependent forgetting?
Carter + Cassday
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What drug were particiapants given?
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How does anti-histamine affect your psychological state?
It makes participants feel drowsy
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What happened when there was a mismatch between internal states during learning and recall?
The performance of the participants in the memory test was poorer
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What are the 2 weakness of state and context dependent forgetting?
Artificial situation= low ecological validity + studies don't take into account meaning or material + motivation
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What are the 2 strengths of state and context dependent forgetting?
Real-life App in cognitive interviews to imrpove EWT & high control so can be replicated
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What is eyewitness testimony?
The ability of a person who has witnessed a crime to remember details of the event
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What are the 3 stages of eyewitness memory?
Encoding, storage and retrieval
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What is encoding? & Why may it be partial/distorted?
Details of the event are encoded into LTM. Because crimes happen quickly, usually at night and violently encoding maybe partial or distorted
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What is storage? & What may happen?
Information about the event is retained/stored for a period of time. The info may be lost or modified during retention.
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What may interfere with info at retention?
Other activities that occur between encoding and retrieval.
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What is retrieval?
The witness retrieves information from the event from storage. The misconstruction of memory may be modified by things such as; misleading info + anxiety
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What is Loftus + Palmer's study about?
Misleading information: leading questions
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What was the aim of Loftus + Plamer's study?
That leading questions can distort eyewitness testimony accounts, as it can become distorted by cues in the question
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Briefly describe the procedure?
45 American students were shown 7 films of car accidents, ranging from 5-30 secs; presented in random order to groups
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What question were participants then asked?
"How fast were the cars going when they... each other?"
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What verbs were used?
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What did the verb affect?
The estimated speed of the car
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Which conditioned produced the highest estimated speed?
The smashed one (40.8mph)
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Which condition produced the lowest estimated speed?
The contacted one (31.8mph)
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What is the conclusion?
The verb implied information about the speed of the car, which altered the participants memory
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What 2 explanations did Loftus + Palmer suggest?
Response bias and the memory altered
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What is response-bias?
The verb (misleading info) didn't affect the participant's memory but simply influenced the participants answer
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What is altered memory?
The verb changes a person's perception of the accident. This perception is stored in the participant's memory of the event
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What question was asked 1 week later?
Was there any broken glass?
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What did Loftus + Palmer then find?
That those who were asked the "smashed" question, were more likely to report seeing broken glass
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Why is this not due to response-bias?
Because the leading question actually changed the participants memory of the event
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What does this show?
Information acquired after the event can merge with the original memory, causing inaccurate recall
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What is post-event discussion?
When co-witnesses of a crime discuss the event with each other
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What happens as a result?
Their eyewitness testimonies may become contaminated as they combine (mis)information from other witnesses with their own memories
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What study supports post-event discussion affecting eyewitness testimony?
Gabbert et al.
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What did Gabbert et al. find?
That 71% of participants recalled aspects of the event that they hadn't seen in the video, but picked up in discussion
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What did Gabbert conclude?
Witnesses go along with other witnesses because they want to gain social approval, or think the other person is right
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What is anxiety?
A state of emotional and physical arousal
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What effects can it have?
Positive + Negative
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What are some emotional changes?
Worrying, feeling tense
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What are some physical changes?
Increased heart rate, sweatiness
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What is weapon focus effect?
Anxiety caused by the presence of a weapon, means that attention is focused on it and not on other details
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What does weapon focus effect reduce?
The accuracy of identification
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What study investigated the negative effects of anxiety + weapon focus?
Johnson + Scott
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What was the 1st condition?
(low anxiety) Participants overhead a friendly exchange about equipment failure. A man leaves holding a greasy pen
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What was the 2nd condtion?
(high anxiety- weapon focus) Participants overheard a hostile exchange, and the sound of breaking furniture. A man leaves the room with a bloody knife.
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What did Johnson + Scott find?
The 1st condition had a better recall and were more accurate in identifying the man
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How accurate was recall in condition 1 + 2?
49% (pen) + 33% (knife)
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What does the study show?
The weapon narrowed the participants focus to it, and took some attention away from the mans face
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What did Christianson and Hubinette find?
That anxiety doesn't reduce the accuracy of recall
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In their study who had the best recall?
Those with highest anxiety- victims of the robbery
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What law says that moderate anxiety is best for accurate recall?
Yerkes and Dodson
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is interference?


When 2 pieces of information conflict with eachother, and one memory disturbs the ability to recall the other

Card 3


What does interference result in?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


When is interference more likely to occur?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why do we forget information?


Preview of the front of card 5
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