Memory: Multi - Store Model Overview

  • Created by: Saf2202
  • Created on: 26-10-18 20:02
What is the multi - store model of memory?
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin's (1968, 1971) multi - store model describes how information flows through the memory system. The model suggests that memory is made up of three stores linked by processing.
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What happens in the sensory register?
A stimulus from the enviroment (e.g. the sound of someone's name), will pass into the sensory registers along with lots of other sights, sounds, smells etc. This part of the memory is not one store but several. There is one for each of our five sense
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What are the two main stores in the sensory register?
The two main stores in the sensory register are: Iconic memory (visual information is coded visually) and Echoic memory (sound - or auditory - information is coded acoustically).
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Describe duration of the material in the sensory registers
Lasts only very briefly - the duration is less than half a second.
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Describe the capacity of the sensory registers
Have a high capacity, e.g. over one hundred million eye cells in one eye, each storing data
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Does anything from the sensory registers pass through into the memory systems?
Very little of what goes into the sensory register passes further into the memory system. But it will if you pay attention to it. So the key process is attention.
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What is STM?
STM is what is known as a limited capacity store, because it can only contain a certain number of 'things' before forgetting what takes place
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What does STM stand for?
Short - term memory.
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What is the capacity of STM on average?
Somewhere between 5 and 9 items of information (magic number 7±2), however, research has suggested it might be more like 5 rather than 9.
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How is information is STM coded?
Acoustically.
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How long does it last?
It lasts about 30 seconds.
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When does maintenance rehearsal occur?
Maintenance rehearsal occurs when we repeat (rehearse) material to ourselves over and over again.
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What happens when we rehearse information for a long period of time?
We can keep the information in our STM'S as long as we rehearse it. If we rehearse it long enough, it passes into long - term memory (LTM).
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What does LTM stand for?
Long - term memory.
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What is LTM?
This is the potentially permanent memory store for information that has been rehearsed for a prolonged time.
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What is the capability of the capacity of LTM?
Psychologists believe that its capacity is unlimited and can last for many years. E.g. Bahrick et al. (1975) found that many of their participants were able to recognise the names and faces of their classmates almost 50 years after graduating.
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How are LTMs coded?
Semantically (e.g. in terms of meaning).
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How can the material stored in LTM be recalled?
Although the material is stored in LTM, when we want to recall it, it has to be transferred back into STM by a process called retrieval. According to the MSM, this is true of all our memories.
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Can memories be recalled directly from LTM?
No.
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Card 2

Front

What happens in the sensory register?

Back

A stimulus from the enviroment (e.g. the sound of someone's name), will pass into the sensory registers along with lots of other sights, sounds, smells etc. This part of the memory is not one store but several. There is one for each of our five sense

Card 3

Front

What are the two main stores in the sensory register?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe duration of the material in the sensory registers

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the capacity of the sensory registers

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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