Memory lymphocytes and immunisation

HideShow resource information
What is the response time when a pathogen enters the body for the first time?
Slow
1 of 30
Why?
Because there aren't as many B-lymphocytes that can make the antibody needed to lock on to the antigen
2 of 30
What will happen eventually?
The body will produce enough of the right antibody to overcome the infection
3 of 30
What will happen meanwhile?
The infected person will show symptoms of the disease
4 of 30
What are also produced in response to a foreign antigen?
Memory lymphocytes
5 of 30
What do memory lymphocytes do?
They "remember" a specific antigen
6 of 30
How long do they remain in the body?
A long time
7 of 30
What is that person now?
Immune
8 of 30
What does this mean for the person?
Their immune system has the ability to respond quickly to a second infection
9 of 30
What will happen if the same pathogen enters the body again?
There are more cells that will recognise it and produce antibodies against it
10 of 30
Compared to the first immune response, what is the secondary immune response?
Faster and stronger
11 of 30
What does the secondary immune response often do?
Gets rid of the pathogen before you begin to show any symptoms.
12 of 30
What does immunisation do?
Stop you getting infections
13 of 30
What can you do to avoid getting ill?
You can be immunised against some diseases
14 of 30
What does immunisation usually involve?
Injecting dead or inactive pathogens into the body
15 of 30
What do they still carry?
Antigens
16 of 30
This makes the pathogens what? (specific term)
Antigenic
17 of 30
What does having these antigens mean?
That even though the pathogens are harmless your body makes antibodies to help destroy them
18 of 30
What can the antigens also trigger?
Memory Lymphocytes to be made
19 of 30
So what happens if live pathogens get into the body?
There will already be memory lymphocytes that can cause a fast secondary immune response
20 of 30
What does this mean (if it fast)?
That you are less likely to get the disease
21 of 30
Name 2 pros of immunisation
Less chance of a big outbreak of disease, some diseases will be virtually wiped out
22 of 30
Name two cons of immunisation
Sometimes it doesn't work, sometimes you can have a bad reaction to it
23 of 30
What are big outbreaks of diseases called?
Epidemics
24 of 30
Why is there less of a chance of an epidemic?
More people would be immunised, even those who aren't immunised are unlikely to catch it because there are less people spreading it
25 of 30
What is this also known as?
"Herd immunity"
26 of 30
What could happen if a significant number of people aren't immunised?
The disease can spread quickly through them and lots of people will be ill at the same time
27 of 30
Give three examples of bad reactions to a vaccine
e.g. swelling, or maybe something more serious like a fever or seizures
28 of 30
Why is the secondary immune response to a pathogen much faster than the first response?
Memory lymphocytes are produced in response to a foreign antigen and remain in the body for a long time [1 mark]. So when the pathogen enters the body again, there are more cells that recognise it and can produce antibodies against it [1 mark].
29 of 30
But bad reactions are ...?
Very rare
30 of 30

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why?

Back

Because there aren't as many B-lymphocytes that can make the antibody needed to lock on to the antigen

Card 3

Front

What will happen eventually?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What will happen meanwhile?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are also produced in response to a foreign antigen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Memory lymphocytes and immunisation resources »