Memory key studies AO1

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  • Created by: Nicole
  • Created on: 12-05-16 22:18
Who did research into coding in the STM and LTM?
Baddeley (1966)- acoustically/semantically similar or dissimilar words- found worse recall immediate recall with acoustically similar words. recall after 20 minutes worse with semantically dissimilar words
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Who did research into capacity of STM?
Jacobs (1887)- digit span- 9.3 for numbers and 7.3 for letters
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Who did research into capacity of STM?
Miller (1956)- 7 (plus or minus 2)- made observations of everyday practice (e.g. 7 days in a week, 7 deadly sins)
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Who did research into duration of STM?
Peterson & Peterson (1959)- p's given a consonant syllable to remember and a 3-digit number to count backwards for varying amounts of time. found 80% of the syllables ere recalled correctly at 3 second interval but only 3% after 18 seconds
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Who did research into duration of LTM?
Bahrick (1975)- yearbook- tested after 15 years and 48 years of graduating. recall after 48 years was 70%, after 15 years was 90%
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Who came up with the Multi-Store Model (MSM)?
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)- sensory register, STM and LTM (retrieval, attention, maintenance rehearsal, prolonged rehearsal)
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Who came up with the Working Memory Model (WMM)?
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)- Central Executive, Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad, LTM, Phonological Loop (articulatory control system and phonological store)
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Study into interference?
McGeoch and McDonald (1931)- all p'shad to remember standard list of words to remember to 100% accuracy then given 2nd list (e.g. synonyms, antonyms)- more interference in most similar material (synonyms)
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Study into retrieval failure- context dependent forgetting?
Godden and Baddeley (1975)- 4 groups: learn on land recall on land, learn on land recall underwater, learn underwater recall underwater, learn underwater recall on land. found when the context was different recall was 40% lower than matching contexts
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Study into retrieval failure- state dependent forgetting?
Carter and Cassaday (1998)- gave anti-histamine drugs to their p's. 4 conditions: learn on drug recall on drug, learn on drug recall not on drug, learn not on drug recall on drug, learn not on drug recall not on drug
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EWT: Misleading information-leading questions- key study 1
Loftus and Palmer (1974)- clip of car accidents asked ' about how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?' the word 'hit' was substituted for bumped, collides, contacted or smashed. 'contacted' - mean 31.8mph. 'smashed'- mean 40.5mph
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EWT: Misleading information- post event discussion- key study 2
Gabbert et al (2003)- paired p's watched a video of the sam crime but filmed so each p could see elements in the event that the other could not, p's discussed. found 71% of the p's mistakenly reported aspects of the event that they didn't see.
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EWT: Anxiety- negative effect- key study 1
Johnson and Scott (1976)- 2 conditions: 1)low anxiety-man walked with pen with grease on is hands 2)high anxiety-man in heated argument,sound of breaking glass,holding a knife with blood. 49% in low-anxiety identified,33% in high-anxiety identified
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EWT: Anxiety- positive effect- key study 2
Yuille and Cutshall (1986)- real life crime a fun shop owner shot a thief dead, 21 witnesses, witnesses rated how stressed they were at the time. p's with highest levels of stress were lost accurate than the less stressed (88% compared to 75%)
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Who developed the enhanced CI?
Fisher et al (1987)- includes a focus on social dynamics of the interaction, reducing the eyewitness's anxiety, minimising distractions, getting witness to speak slowly and making open ended questions
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Who developed the C1?
Fisher and Geiselman (1992)- based on psychological understanding memory. Includes: Report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order, change perspective
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Who did research into capacity of STM?

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Jacobs (1887)- digit span- 9.3 for numbers and 7.3 for letters

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Who did research into capacity of STM?

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Card 4

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Who did research into duration of STM?

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Card 5

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Who did research into duration of LTM?

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