Memory Flashcards

  • Created by: Haider_A
  • Created on: 24-04-18 18:35
Capacity
This is a measure of how much can be held in memory. It is represented in terms of bits of information, such as number of digits
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Coding/Encoding
The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Info enters the brain via the senses. It's then stored in various forms, such as visual codes (e.g. a picture), acoustic codes or semantic codes (meaning of the experience)
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Duration
A measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available
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Long Term Memory (LTM)
Your memory for events that have happened in the past. This lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years. LTM has potentially unlimited duration and capacity and tends to be coded sematically
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Short Term Memory (STM) (A.K.A "Working Memory")
Your memory for immediate events. STMs are measured in seconds and minutes, not hours and days (short duration). They disappear unless rehearsed. STM has a limited capacity of four items or chunks and tends to be coded acoustically.
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Multi-Store Model
An explanation of memory based on three separate memory stores, and how information is transferred between these stores
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Sensory Register (Multi-Store Model)
This is info at the senses- info collected by sensory organs. Info is retained for a very brief period by sensory registers. We can only hold accurate images of sensory info for less than 1/2 a second. Capacity is very large. Coding depends on organ
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Central Executive (Working Memory Model)
Monitors and coordinates all the other mental functions in working memory
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Episodic Buffer (Working Memory Model)
Receives input from many sources, temporarily stores this info and then integrates it in order to construct a mental episode of what is being experienced
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Phonological Loop (Working Memory Model)
Codes speech sounds in working memory, typically involving maintenance rehearsal, which is why this component of working memory is referred to as a "loop"
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Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (Working Memory Model)
Codes visual information in terms of separate objects as well as the arrangement of these objects in ones'' visual field
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Working Memory Model
An explanation of the memory used when working on a task. Each store is qualitatively different
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Episodic Memory (Types of LTM)
Personal memories of events, such as what you did yesterday or a teacher you liked. This kid of memory includes textual detail plus emotional tone
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Procedural Memory (Types of LTM)
Memory for how to do things, such as riding a bicycle or learning how to read. Such memories are automatic as a result of repeated practice
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Semantic Memory (Types of LTM)
Shared memory for facts and knowledge. These memories may be concrete, such as knowing that ice is made out of water, or abstract, such as mathematical knowledge
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Interference (Explanations for Forgetting)
An explanation for forgetting in terms of one memory disrupting the ability to recall another. This is most likely to occur when the two memories have some similarity
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Proactive Interference (PI)
Past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something
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Retroactive Interference (RI)
Current attempts to learn something interfere with past learning
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Retrieval Failure (Explanations for Forgetting)
Occurs due to the absence of cues. An explanation for forgetting based on the idea that the issues relates to being able to remember a memory that is available, not accessible. Retrieval depends on using cues.
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Cues
Are the things that serve as a reminder. They may meaningfully link to the material to be remembered or may not be meaningfully linked, such as environmental cues (a room) or cues related to your mental state (being sad/drunk)
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Eyewitness Testimony
The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime.
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Leading Question (Accuracy of EWT)
A question that either by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads him or her to the desired answer
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Misleading Information (Accuracy of EWT)
Supplying information that may lead a witnesses' memory for a crime, to be altered
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Post-Event Discussion (Accuracy of EWT)
A conversation between co-witnesses or an interviewer and an eyewitness, after a crime has taken place which may contaminate a witnesses' memory for the event
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Anxiety (Accuracy of EWT)
An unpleasant emotional state that is often accompanied by increased heart rate and rapid breathing, i.e. psychological arousal
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Cognitive Interview (Improving Accuracy of EWT)
A police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context of the crime in order to increase the accessibility of stored information. As our memory is made up of a network of associations, rather
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Cognitive Interview (Improving Accuracy of EWT) (2)
...than of discrete events, memories are accessed using multiple retrieval strategies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Info enters the brain via the senses. It's then stored in various forms, such as visual codes (e.g. a picture), acoustic codes or semantic codes (meaning of the experience)

Back

Coding/Encoding

Card 3

Front

A measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Your memory for events that have happened in the past. This lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years. LTM has potentially unlimited duration and capacity and tends to be coded sematically

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Your memory for immediate events. STMs are measured in seconds and minutes, not hours and days (short duration). They disappear unless rehearsed. STM has a limited capacity of four items or chunks and tends to be coded acoustically.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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