memory ; ewt affecting factors ; misleading information

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LEADING QUESTIONS
DIGNDFG
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what did loftus and palmer arrange for pps (students) to do?
watch film clips of car accidents and answer questions about it
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what type of question was the critical question?
leading question
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what were pps asked?
about how fast were the cars going when they hit each other
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what is the leading part of this question?
the word hit bc it implies speeding
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how many pp groups?
5
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what was different in each group?
each given different leading question
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what were the five words?
hit / contacted / bumped / collided / smashed
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what did the rsrchrs do with the findings?
calculate mean estimated speed for each pp group
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what was the mean speed for the 'contacted' group?
31.8 mph
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what was the 'smashed' group?
40.5 mph
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so what did the leading question do?
bias eyewitness recall of event
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reasons for leading qs affecting ewt
diogonf
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what does the response-bias explanation suggest?
wording has no real effect on memories rather influencies how they decide to answer
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so then what does pp q with word 'smashed' do?
encourage to choose a higher speed esimate
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what did loftus and palmer's follow up experiment support?
substitution explanation
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which suggests?
wording of leading question actually changes memory of clip rather than just answer
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demonstrated how?
those that heard 'smashed' were more likely to report having seen glass which there wasn't
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so what did this critical verb do?
alter memory of incident
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POST-EVENT DISCUSSION
SOGND
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what is a post-event discussion?
when co-witnesses to a crime discuss it
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what may this do to ewts?
contaminate them
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why?
because they combine mis/information from other witnesses with own memories
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gabbert et al studied pps in groups of how many?
pairs
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what did that mean for crime video footage?
both watched vid of same crime but from diff angles
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what did this mean?
each pp could see elements in event other couldn't
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then what happened?
both pps discussed what had seen then individually filled out recall test
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what % of people were found to have mistakenly recalled aspects of event picked up in discussion?
71%
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what was the corresponding figure in the control group of no discussion?
0%
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why did gabbert conc witnesses often go along with each other? (2)
win social approval / believe other witnesses are right and they're wrong
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what is this phenomenon called?
memory conformity
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EVALUATION
DFKNS
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:) useful real-life applications
dfgh
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what does loftus believe about leading questions?
they have distorting effect on memory so bad police officers need to be v careful whenphrasing q.s
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what do psychs believe they can do w/ rsrch in2 this area?
make important positivive difference on real peoples lives
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because they can improve the way what works?
legal system
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and psychs can appear in court trials as?
expert witnesses
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:( artificial tasks
digd
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what was artificial about loftus and palmer's study?
only watched film clips of car accidents
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why is this different to watching a real accident?
lack the stress
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and there is evidence that what inf memory?
emotions
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why is this a limitation of the study?
may tell v little about how leading questions affect ewt in real crimes
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it could also make the researchers too what about accuracy of ewt?
pessimistic
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and ewt's may be what compared to research?
more reliable
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:( INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
dfigdfg
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what is there ev to suggest about age and ewt's?
older people less accurate tan younger ppl
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what did anastasi and rhodes find about ppl in age groups 18-25 + 35-45
more accurate than those 55-78
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however when were all age groups more accurate?
when identifying people of their own age group
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this is known as?
own age bias
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what age group do research studies often use?
young people
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which could mean what for the old people?
they only appear to have worse recall bc of that bias when they don't rlly
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EVALUATION EXTRA
IOFGDFG
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:( demand characteristics
dfigddifg
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what do zaragosa and mccloskey argue?
many pp answers from lab studies are result of DCs
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why?
bc pps dont want to let researcher down
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so when asked question they dont know the answer to what do they do?
guess
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so when asked did you see a blue car but they didn't what would they answer and why
yes bc they want to help
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Card 2

Front

what did loftus and palmer arrange for pps (students) to do?

Back

watch film clips of car accidents and answer questions about it

Card 3

Front

what type of question was the critical question?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what were pps asked?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is the leading part of this question?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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