Memory and Perception

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1. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that

  • language is culture-dependent
  • colour perception is culture-dependent
  • language can determine thought
  • our perceptions shape our thoughts and beliefs
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2. The top of a convex object appears light coloured while the bottom appears darker. Thus, our visual system appears to interpret this object as if it were illuminated from above. The cue to depth at work in this context is

  • haze
  • elevation
  • shading
  • texture

3. Which of the following was not cited in the text as an example of the strong positive effects of odour on behaviour:

  • increased genital arousal of women exposed to male cologne during a specific stage of the menstrual cycle
  • Enhanced recall of verbal material when odour is presented at encoding and retrieval
  • creation of a more favourable impression of a formally dressed female job candidate at interview
  • an increase in charitable behaviour

4. People in Godden and Baddeley's study who learned lists of words underwater:

  • recalled the words better on dry land
  • recalled the words better underwater
  • generally forgot most of them once they left the water
  • showed no difference in accuracy of recall underwater or on dry land

5. The Gestalt principle which states that elements that are positioned closely together as a group will be perceived as belonging together is the __________ principle

  • continuity
  • closure
  • proximity
  • propinquity


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