Memory A level AQA New Syllabus

  • Created by: _marxlee
  • Created on: 17-04-17 15:21
What did Glanzer and Cunitz find?
If participants were prevented from rehearsing a list of one syllable words for a short period by counting backwards in threes, they could remember the first words in the presentation, but not those presented in the middle or the end.
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What happened if participants were allowed to recall immediately in Glanzer and Cunitz?
They remembered both the words at the beginning and the end of the lists.
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What is this process known as?
Primacy-recency effect
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How does Glanzer and Cunitz support the MSM?
The words at the begining of the list are rehearsed and therefore placed in LTM, but the words in the middle of the lists are displaced by rehearsing the first words-words at the end of the list are remembered because they are fresh in STM
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What did Beardsley find?
The prefrontal cortex is active when individuals are involved with tasks involving short-term memory.
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What did Squire et al find?
The hippocampus is active when long term memory is engaged
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What did Shallice and Warrington find?
In one patient with amnesia, he found recall of digits very difficult when they were read to him, but much better when he read them to himself.
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What happened in the case of Clive Wearing?
After a virus caused damage to the hippocampus, he had very little long term memory for events that had happened in his life, but could still remember skills such as playing the piano, reading music and writing in a diary.
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What is episodic memory?
Type of long-term memory that gives individuals an autobiographical record of things that have happened to them.
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What is an example of episodic memory?
Your school leaving age, first kiss, your first holiday, what you did last night
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What is semantic memory?
Structured record of facts, meanings, concepts of knowledge about the external world that we have acquired.
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What is an example of semantic memory?
Types of food, capital cities, historical dates, functions of objects, vocabulary
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What is procedural memory?
The unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly with the use of objects or movements of the body
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What is an example of procedural memory?
Tying a shoelace, playing a guitar, riding a bike.
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What did Tulving find?
3 of the 6 participants, when thinking about historical facts blood flow increased at the back of his brain, whereas when he thought about childhood experiences blood flow increased at the front of the brain
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What did Corkin study?
A brain-damage patient known as HM. HM had severe amnesia as a result of an operation to treat epileptic seizures.
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What did Corkin find?
HM appeared unable to store new long-term memories. However when HM was taught a new motor skill, he gradually improved. Several days later, HM was tested again and he was able to perform the task as well as she previously could.
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What does Cohen and Squire suggest?
Semantic and episodic memory should be understood as the same type of memory, called declarative memory.
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What did Kan et al find?
There was interdependence between episodic and semantic memory
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What did Belleville et al find?
Demonstrated that episodic memories could be improved with training in older patients with mild cognitive impairment
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Who devised the working memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch
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How many components are in the working memory model?
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What is the function of the central executive?
To direct attention to particular tasks, determining how the brain's resources are allocated to tasks.
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How does information enter the central executive?
Via the senses or long-term memory
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Where is this information then sent to?
The other systems for processing and temporary storahge
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What is the capacity of the central executive?
Very small- cannot attend to too many things at once. No capacity for storing data
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What is the capacity of the phonological loop?
Stores limited number of speech-based sounds for brief periods
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What are the two components of the phonological loop?
The phonological store and the articulatory control process
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What is the phonological store?
Allows acoustically coded items to be stored for brief periods e.g. someone talking
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What is the articulatory control process?
Allows sub-vocal repetitions of items in phonological store. Similar to maintenance rehearsal
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What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Processes and stores mental images in terms of what they look like and their place in the visual field. Independant from the phonological loop.
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What is the capacity of the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Limited capacity
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When is the visuo-spatial sketchpad used?
When people are planning a spatial task, like moving from one room to the next
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What is the episodic buffer?
A general store that allows both sound and visual information to be bound together. It integrates information from the other systems and also offers a sense of time sequencing. It records events that are happening and sends information to LTM.
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What is the capacity of the episodic buffer?
Limited capacity
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What did D'Esposito et al find?
Using fMRI scans, the prefrontal cortex was activated when verbal and spatial tasks were performed simultaneously but not when performed separately, suggesting the brain area is associated with central executive functioning
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What did Trojani and Grossi find?
Reported on a case study of a brain damaged patient who had impaired funcitonign of the phonological loop but had a perfectly functioning visuo-spatial sketchpad, suggesting two separate stores
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What did Gathercole and Baddeley find?
Participants had difficulty simultaneously tracking a moving point of light and describing the angles of a hollow letter F, because both tasks required VSSP functioning, whereas other participants had very little difficulty
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What does this suggest?
That the VSSP and the PL are separate slave systems
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What did Eslinger and Demasio study?
A case study of EVR who had a cerebral tumour removed. He performed well on tests of reasoning, which suggests that his CE is intact; however he had poor decision making skills, which suggests that his CE is not wholly intact
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What are the practical applications of the working memory model?
Children with ADHD
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What does Alloway suggest?
A number of methods to help children focus on tasks
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What was the first method?
Use brief and simple instructions so they don't forget what they are doing
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What is the second method?
Break instructions down into individual steps
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What is the third method?
Frequently repeat instructions
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What is the fourth method?
Ask the children to periodically repeat instructions
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Card 2


What happened if participants were allowed to recall immediately in Glanzer and Cunitz?


They remembered both the words at the beginning and the end of the lists.

Card 3


What is this process known as?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How does Glanzer and Cunitz support the MSM?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Beardsley find?


Preview of the front of card 5
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