Memory

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What is memory?
The process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past
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What is meant by 'duration'?
Refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available
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Key study for duration of STM
Peterson's: Landmark study; 24 students; 90% remembered 3s interval & 2% remembered 18s interval. Suggests that when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts about 20s
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Key study for duration of LTM
Shepard: Shown 612 memorable pictures one at a time; an hour later shown same pics with new ones; showed almost perfect recognition; only 50% recall after 4 months
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What is meant by 'capacity'?
A measure of how much can be held in memory
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Key study for capacity of STM
Miller's "Magic number 7 +/- 2"
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What is meant by 'chunking'?
Miller proposed that the capacity of STM can be enhanced by grouping sets of digits/letters into meaningful 'chunks'
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Key study for chunking
Simon: people have shorter memory span for larger chunks
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What is meant by 'encoding'?
The way information is changed so that it can be stored in the memory. These various forms include: visual (pictures), acoustic (sounds) and semantic (meaning)
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Key study for encoding
Baddeley: Given words either acoustically or semantically similar/dissimilar; Difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM by not in LTM & difficulty recalling semantically similar words in LTM but not STM
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Name the three components of the multi-store model
Sensory memory, STM and LTM
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What is the sensory memory?
Sensory stores that constantly receive information; If a person's attention is focused on one of the stores, that data is transferred to STM
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What is STM?
Information held in 'fragile' state (will decay if not rehearsed); new info. entering STM will displace (push out) original data because of limited capacity
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What is LTM?
Atkinson&Shriffrin said moving info. from STM to LTM happens through rehearsal; initial rehearsal holds info. in STM, but the more something is rehearsed, the more lasting the memory will be (maintenance rehearsal)
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Key study for sensory store
Sperling: Participants saw grid of digits/letters for 50ms: either asked to write down all 12 or just a row: 42% recall if asked to recall all & 75% recall for just a row: suggests info. decays rapidly in the sensory store
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Key study for distinction between STM & LTM
Glanzer&Cunitz: Given list of 20 words one at a time & asked to recall all: words from start of list recalled more (primary effect) & from end (recency effect) but less recalled middle words
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What is the 'primary effect'?
Occurs because something has had time to rehearse and so is transferred into LTM
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What is the 'recency effect'?
Occurs because words are in STM
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Research into areas of the brain associated with STM & LTM
Beardsley found that the prefrontal cortex is active when working on STM tasks & Squire found that the hippocampus is active with LTM is
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HM
Underwent operation to remove hippocampus to control epileptic fits: personality & intellect the same but couldn't form new LTM: Suggests hippocampus is a 'gateway' to LTM
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Clive W
Suffered viral infection which damaged his hippocampus: remembered aspects of before infection but couldn't transfer memories from STM to LTM
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Strengths of the Multi-store model
Strong evidence supporting three different stores; provides account for memory in terms of structure & process; clear predictions (psychologists can conduct studies to test it)
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Limitation of the Mutli-store model: Oversimplifies structure and process
KF suffered brain damage -> difficulty with verbal info but normal ability for visual (STM is not a single store); Schachter suggested LTM has 4 stores (semantic, episodic, procedural, perceptual)
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Limitation of the Mutli-store model: Maintenance rehearsal is not the only way of transferring to LTM
Craik&Lockhart: suggested enduring memories are created by processing what you do and things deeply processed are more memorable
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Limitation of the Mutli-store model: STM relies on LTM
Logie suggested STM relies on LTM (cannot come first); Ruchkin asked participant to recall set of words&pseudo-words: more brain activity when real words were processed (involvement of other areas of the brain)->STM is a part of LTM
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What is the Working memory model?
Baddeley&Hitch: used 'working memory' to refer to the memory you use for complex tasks
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Name the 4 components of the working memory model
Central executive; Phonological loop; Visuo-spatial sketchpad; Episodic buffer
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What is the 'central executive'?
Directs attention to particular tasks
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What is the 'Phonological loop'?
Deals with auditory info. & preserves order of info.
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Key study for Phonological loop
Baddeley: subdivided this loop into Phonological store (holds words you hear) and articulatory process (loops words heard or seen)
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What is the 'Visuo-spatial sketchpad'?
Used to plan spatial tasks; visual/spatial information is temporally stored here
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Key study for Visuo-spatial sketchpad
Logie: Visuo-spatial sketchpad can be divided into visual cache (a store) & inner scribe (deals with spatial relations)
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What is the 'Episodic Buffer'?
A general store
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Key study for the Episodic Buffer
Baddeley: added this extra storage system that has limited capacity; integrates info. from central executive, Phonological loop, Visuo-spatial sketchpad & LTM
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Name the 5 supporting studies for the Working memory model
Hitch&Baddeley; Baddeley x 3; KF
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Evidence supporting Working memory model: Hitch&Baddeley
Gave participants two tasks to do simultaneously: one occupied central executive and the other the articulatory loop; task one was slower when involving both (suggests doing 2 tasks that involve same component causes difficulty
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Evidence supporting Working memory model: Baddeley (1975)
Phonological loop explains word-length effect (people cope with short words better than long in STM)
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Evidence supporting Working memory model: Baddeley (1975)
Demonstrated visuo-spatial sketchpad existence; participants given visual tracking7 describing tasks; 2 visual talks proved difficult; visual+verbal used 2 components so less difficult
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Evidence supporting Working memory model: Baddeley (1987)
When participants shown words& asked for immediate recall, performance much better for related words than unrelated; provides evidence for episodic buffer
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Evidence supporting Working memory model: KF
Showed that STM works independently from LTM
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Strengths of the Working memory model
Explanatory power (exaplains many psychological observations); Supporting evidence; Offers direction in identifying sub-components of memory&linking those to areas of the brain; Offers better account for STM
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Limitations of the Working memory model
Central executive same as attention?; Too vague; Use of case studies from brain damaged patients doesnt allow you to do 'before&after' comparisons & injuries are traumatic which may change behaviour
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Key study for limitations of the Working memory model
Damasio: EVR had cerebral tumor removed; performed well on tests that required reasoning (central executive in tact) but had poor decision making skills (central executive not wholly in tact)
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What is an 'Eyewitness Testimony'?
evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identify perpetrator of crime
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Name and explain the three stages of eyewitness memory
Witness encodes into LTM details of event (encoding may only be partial); witness retains info. for period of time (memories may be lost or modified during retention&activities may interfere); witness retrieves memory from storage
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Key study for accuracy of EWT & misleading questions: Loftus and Palmer (Experiment one)
45 students shown 7 traffic accidents & given questionnaire including critical question 'About how fast were the cars going when they...each other?'; each group given different verb (Smashed;contacted;bumped;collided); 'smashed' estimated ^speed
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Key study for accuracy of EWT & misleading questions: Loftus and Palmer (Experiment 2)
150 students (3groups) shown 1min car accident; G1-Smashed; G2-Hit; G3-Control; Asked to return week later to answer question 'did you see any broken glass?; G1 said yes more: suggests misleading post-event info. changes the way info. is stored
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Key study for accuracy of EWT & misleading questions: Loftus et al
Participants shown slides of events leading to car accident; G1-red Datsun stopping at junction with 'STOP' sigh; G2- shown 'YIELD' sign; 75% with consistent &4% with inconsistent questions identified correctly; misleading questions affect recall
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Key study for accuracy of EWT & misleading questions: Bekerian&Bowers
Replicated stop/yield sign study; showed slides in order; recall now the same for consistent/nonconsistent -> misleading questions affect retrieval rather than storage
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Key study for accuracy of EWT & misleading questions: Yuille&Cutshall
Interviewed 13 witnesses to robberies in Canada 4 months after event (included 2 misleading questions); witnesses recalled accurately -> post-event info. may not affect memory in real-life EWT
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Key study for anxiety negatively effecting EWT
Deffenbacher: meta-analysis of 18 studies published between 1974-1997; support for anxiety negatively effecting EWT accuracy
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Key study for anxiety positively effective EWT
Christianson&Hibinette: Questioned 58 real witnesses to bank robberies; those who were personally threatened were more accurate in recall
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Key study for anxiety & central details of crime
The Weapon focus effect (Johnson&Scott):Loftus used 2 conditions: C1- man emerged holding a pen with grease on hands; C2-heated discussion & man emerged holding knife and covered in blood;asked to identify man out of 50 pics; C1-49% & C2-33% accurate
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Explanation for the weapon focus effect
Steblay: meta-analysis found presence of weapon reduced EWT accuracy; Loftus: monitored eye movements on eyewitnesses-found attention goes to weapon more than person holding it
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Key study for age and EWT: Parker&Carranza
Compared primary school children and college students; slide sequence of mock crime & asked to identify target; children had higher rate of choosing but were more likely to get errors
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Key study for age and EWT: Yarmey
Stopped 651 adults in public place&asked them to recall physical characteristics of young woman they spoke to for 15s, 2 mins earlier; young(18-29)&middle aged (30-44) more confident in answering but no difference in accuracy
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Key study for age and EWT: Memon et al
Compare young (16-33)&older (60-82) EW; when delay between incident&recall short =no difference; when long delay = young more confident
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Key study for age and EWT: Anastasi&Khodes
18-25:35-45:55-78 age groups; shown 24 pics& asked to rank in 'attractiveness';given short 'filler'activity then presented with 48 pics; young&middle aged more accurate at identifying; all age groups identified own age group more accurately
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Key study for age and EWT: Brigham&Malpass
Differential experience hypothesis: suggests the more contact we have with members from own age group/ethnic group, the better our memory is for those individuals (identification)
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What is the 'Cognitive interview'?
Fisher&Geiselman: A police technique for interviewing witnesses
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Name the four components of the Cognitive interview
1) Report everything-report every detail; 2)Mental reinstatement of original context-encouraged to recreate environment/contacts; 3) Changing order- alternative timeline; 4) Changing the perspective- recall incident from multiple perspectives
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Key study into the effectiveness of the Cognitive interview: Kohnken
Meta-analysis of 53 studies; found more than 34% accuracy compared to standard interviews
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Key study into the effectiveness of the Cognitive interview: milne&Bull
Examined effectiveness of each 4 components; compared undergraduates&children against control group; recall across 4 components = no difference; combination of 2 components = more accurate recall
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Limitations of the Cognitive interview
Collection of related techniques = difficulty establishing which one works; takes a long time; enhanced version = greater demand on interviewer
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What are 'mnemonics'?
Any structured technique that is used to help people remember and recall information
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Verbal mnemonics: Acronym
A word/sentence formed from initial letters of other word
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Verbal mnemonics: Acrostic
Poem or sentence where the first letter in each line/word forms the item to be remembered
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Verbal mnemonics: Rhymes
Groups of words with an identity and rhythm
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Verbal mnemonics: Chunking
Dividing a long string of information into memorable chunks
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Visual imagery mnemonics: Method of Loci
Mental techniques to help remember points by associating them with places
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Visual imagery mnemonics: Keyword technique
Associating two pieces of information
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Visual imagery mnemonics: Spider diagrams& mindmaps
Involves making notes in a form of drawing with main topic in centre
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Key study for mnemonics: Gruneberg
Survey of psychology students revising for exams; 30% used mnemonics in revision
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Key study for mnemonics: Gudden et al
Verbal mnemonics = effective for children with disabilities
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Key study for mnemonics: O'Hara
Visual techniques has long-term benefits for adults
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Key study for mnemonics: Atkinson
Those trained in use of keywords learned significantly more
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Limitation of mnemonics
Research taken place in artificial/lab conditions
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Explanation of how mnemonic techniques work: Role of organisation
By organising data we establish links that help recall. Word associations&visual images create links in the brain
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Key study for role of organisation
Bower et al: participants given 112 words to learn; organised words = recall 2/3x bettwe
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Explanation of how mnemonic techniques work: The role of elaborative rehearsal
Enduring memories are created through the process of elaboration. Mnemonic techniques make us elaborate information
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Explanation of how mnemonic techniques work: Dual hypothesis
Paivio: Words&images process separately; concrete words that can be made into images are double encoded in memory which increases likelihood of remembering
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Card 2

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What is meant by 'duration'?

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Refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available

Card 3

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Key study for duration of STM

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Card 4

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Key study for duration of LTM

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Card 5

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What is meant by 'capacity'?

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