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  • Created on: 05-01-16 17:05
Atkinson and Shiffrin
SENSORY MEMORY // Three sensory stores
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Peterson & Peterson
STM // DURATION 15-30 seconds
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STM // CAPACITY 7+/- chunks of info
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Baddeley et al
STM // supported above // Recalled more short than long words
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STM // ENCODING // When recalled, errors made due to sound confusion
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LTM // DURATION// 400 participants // After 48 years // 80% of names 70% of faces
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LTM // ENCODING // semantic // performed same on acoustically similar and dissimilar lists // Large differences on semantically similar and dissimilar lists
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AO2 // Free recall task // serial position effect
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Shallice and Warrington
AO2 // Patient KF // poor STM but LTM normal
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Baddeley and Hitch
AO2 // Working Model of Memory // Different types of STM
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AO2 // Acoustic/Semantic study //Different types of LTM
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Shallice and Warrington
AO2 // Memory is not unitary // Verbal STM affected - Visual not affected
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Bekerian and Baddeley
People heard that BBC wavelength was changing a thousand times // Did not know about it
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Morris et al
MSM suggests flow is linear // Football fans had better recall of scores than non-football fans // Used LTM knowledge to help STM
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Brown and Kulik
Flashbulb memories // Not all info needs to be rehearsed to be remembered
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Brown and Kulik
suggested that some memories are in photographic detail and called this a flashbulb memory because it was likely to occur when the event was surprising and impacted their life.
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Conway et al
held the argument that when studies use events that are actually relevant to people’s lives like Margaret Thatcher’s resignation, they find more accurate flashbulb memories.
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Conway, Skitka, Hemmerich & Kershaw
Tested 768 participants on their recall immediately after the World Trade Centre attacks // Again a year later // Found half of Americans had a flashbulb memory // 75% had near perfect memory //
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Argued FB memories are not special // Might only be long lasting due to rehearsal
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McCloskey et al
Studied the event involving the space shuttle explosion
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Studied the Hillsborough football tragedy
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Found that the CAPACITY of STM was limited to 7+/-2 bits of information
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Waugh and Norman
Presented participants with 16 numbers // One was repeated (probe digit) // Found recall was good if the probe was at the end of the list but not if it was at the beginning
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Displacement may not be the only explanation // Found better recall when there is a faster rate of presentation of digits // Suggests that time is also a factor
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Peterson and Peterson
Found that 90% of STM information is forgotten after only 18 seconds when rehearsal does not occur. Examples that we all experience of STM forgetting include when we are introduced to a large group of people and we forget some of their names or when
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Overcame problem of interference // Asked participants to listen to faint musical tones during the interval of retention // Participants couldn’t rehearse the information and there is less interference because of the attention they gave to the task
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McKenna and Glendon
Supported decay // Studied 215 shop and office workers who volunteered to learn skills on cardiac resuscitation skills
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Suggested riding a bike involves continuous skill // Each action gives a cue for the next action // No maintenance required // Resuscitation requires complex knowledge & skill
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Bahrick and Phelps
Long term study // Found a rapid forgetting of Spanish vocabulary in first three years // However, little decline over next 30-50 years
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Brown and McNeill
‘Tip of your tongue’ phenomenon // Giving someone a cue can help them remember
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Supported idea of cues // Found if people tested on the same list three times, each time they will recall different things // Due to different cues
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Godden and Baddeley
Asked divers to learn worst lists either on land or in water // Found when they were in the opposite environment, their recall was 40% less // HOWEVER, context differences must be large
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Baker et al
Looked at the effect of chewing gum when learning and recalling // 11 words recalled by the gum-chewing group // Only 7 words were recalled by the group who didn’t have gum
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Retrieval failure
Makes cognitive sense
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Warrington and Weiskrantz
Argued that damage to particular parts of the brain can cause a person to be inable of making new long term memories // HOWEVER, their language and perception might still be intact.
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Patient HM
Most famous cases of anterograde amnesia // Surgery caused Amnesia //
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Mackay et al
Compared the performance of HM with participants // Asked them to describe the meaning of ambiguous sentences which were presented VISUALLY // HM’s descriptions were less clear due to AMNESIA
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Argued people with anterograde amnesia can learn to solve puzzles // However, they have no memory of spending time on the task
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Graf et al
Showed lists of 6 letter words to people with amnesia and people without amnesia // Asked to rate how much they liked the words // Then gave them TWO types of memory tests; an implicit and explicit
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Fleishman and Gabriel
Argued the explicit memory is more seriously affected than implicit in Alzheimer's // HOWEVER, both STM and LTM are affected
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Green and Hodges
Found people with Alzheimer’s disease performed poorly at naming, identifying and recognising famous people from the present and past // Also found that when an event was personally significant, the memory declined less rapidly than other memories
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Perry and Hodges
Suggested attention might be an early cognitive characteristic of Alzheimer’s
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Argued that is it unclear whether the change of attention is global or unitary // (Whether all types of attention are affected or whether different types of attention are affected differently)
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Being unable to comprehend sentences is subtler // Some psychologists argue that this problem comes from a working memory impairment // Not a linguistic problem
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Iris Murdoch
Novelist who was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s at the age of 76 // She wrote a book before diagnosis // One author criticised the book and said that it was an ‘indian rope trick’ // Suggests an organic, not a creative decline/change.
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Examined the relationship between IRIS MURDOCH’S intellectual decline and external manifestation of decline in her final novel.
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STM // DURATION 15-30 seconds


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Card 4


STM // CAPACITY 7+/- chunks of info


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Card 5


STM // supported above // Recalled more short than long words


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