Memory

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  • Created by: britneyy
  • Created on: 02-07-15 18:47
What is encoding?
Changing information so that it can be stored
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What is storage?
Holding information in the memory system
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What is retrieval?
Recovering information from storage
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What is the multi-store explaination?
The idea that information passes through a series of memory stores
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How long does the sensory store hold information?
Less than one second
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How much information does the sensory store hold?
Very limited
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How long does the short-term store hold information?
Less than one minute
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How much information does the short-term store hold?
Approx' 7 chunks
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How long does the long-term store hold information?
Up to a lifetime
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How much information does the long-term store hold?
Unlimited
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How does the multi-store work?
Information is passed through the sensory store into the short term store and rehearsed. If enough rehearsal takes place they move to the long-term store. If something else is moved to the short term memory then it can push out unrehearsed info.
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What is recency effect?
Information received later is recalled better than earlier information (still in short term)
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What is primary effect?
The first information is recalled better than the following information (moved to long term due to rehearsal)
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What was the aim of the Peterson and Peterson study?
To see if rehearsal was necessary to hold information in the short-term memory store.
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How did Peterson and Peterson carry out their study?
They gave participants sets of three letters to remember (GYK,MTW), but immediately asked them to count down in threes out loud for different lengths of time. This was done to prevent rehearsal. They were then asked to recall the letters in order.
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What results did Peterson and Peterson get?
The results showed tat the participants had forgotten virtually all of the information after 18 seconds.
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How did Peterson and Peterson conclude their study?
That we cannot hold information in the short-term store unless we rehearse it.
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What was the aim of Murdock's study?
To provide evidence to support the multi-store explanation of memory.
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How did Murdock carry out his study?
He gave participants a list of words to learn presented at one time, for two seconds per word, and then they had to recall the words in any order.
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What results did Murdock get?
The words at the end of the list were recalled first (recency effect). Words at the beginning of the list were also recalled quite well (primary effect), but the middle words were not recalled well at all.
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how did Murdock conclude his study?
That this provides evidence for separate short-term and long-term stores.
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Evaluate Peterson and Peterson and Murdock's studies.
-The studies were not ecologically valid / - Everyday events are often remembered without rehearsal / -Saying things over and over again does not necessarily make them easier to recall
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State the practical implications for the multi-store explanation.
-car registration plates do not exceed 7 chunks so can be held in short-term store / -Postcodes are also limited to 7 chunks / -Phone numbers are separated into area codes and number to allow separate storage and rehearsal.
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What is reconstructive memory?
Altering our recollection of things so that they make more sense.
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What was the aim of Bartlett's study?
To see if people, when given something unfamiliar to remember, would alter the information.
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How did Bartlett carry out his study?
Participants were asked to read a story called 'The War of the Ghosts', which was a Native American legend. Later they were asked to retell the story as accurate as possible. This retelling was repeated several times during the weeks that followed.
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What results did Bartlett get?
He discovered that his participants found it difficult to remember bits of the story concerned with spirits and changed other bits of the story so that it made more sense to them. Each time they changed the story they told it some more.
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What did Bartlett conclude for his study?
Our memory is influenced by our own beliefs.
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What was the aim of Wynn and Logie's study?
To see if the recall of familiar stories changed in the same way that Bartlett found with unfamiliar stories
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How did Wynn and Logie carry out their study?
They asked university students to recall details of their first week at uni. They were asked to do this several times throughout the year.
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What results did Wynn and Logie get?
The accuracy of their descriptions stayed the same no matter how many times they were asked to recall the information. This is unlike Bartlett's participants who changed their stories with every telling.
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What is the conclusion for the Wynn and Logie study?
Memories of familiar events will not change over time.
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Evaluate Bartlett's and Wynn and Loge's studies.
Bartlett's story was confusing and not similar to everyday events. / Wynn and Logie's participants may not have had accurate stories to begin with.
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State the practical applications of the multi-store explanation.
Helps us to understand why two people who are recalling the same event might have completely different versions (doesn't mean they are lying) / An understanding of reconstructive memory might affect our view of eye-witness testimony (reliable)?
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What is levels of processing?
The depth at which words are thought about when trying to be learnt.
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What is structural processing?
Thinking about the physical appearance of the words to be learnt.
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What is phonetic processing?
Thinking about the sounds of words to be learnt.
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What is semantic processing?
Thinking about the meaning of words to be learnt.
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What was the aim of Craig and Lockhart's study?
To see if the type of question asked about words will have an effect on the number of words recalled.
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How did Craig and Lockhart carry out their study?
Participants were shown a list of words, one at a time and asked about each word to which they answered yes/no. The words all required one of the levels of processing. They were given a longer a list of words and they had to say which they had learnt
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What were the results for the Craig and Lockhart study?
Participants identified 70% of the words that required semantic processing, 35% of the words that required phonetic and 15% of the words that required structural.
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What is the conclusion of the Craig and Lockhart study?
The more deeply information is processed, the more likely it is to be remembered.
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Evaluate Craig and Lockhart's study.
Does not explain why deeper levels of processing help memory / Deeper processing takes longer than shallow processing, this could be a reason for remembering more information / Learning lists is not ecologically valid.
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What is ecological validity?
The results of the investigation can be said to apply to real-life behaviour.
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What is interference?
Things that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information that we have leant.
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What is retroactive interference?
When information we have learnt recently hinders our ability to recall information we have learnt previously.
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What is proactive interference?
When information we have already learnt hinders our ability to recall new information.
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What is context?
The general setting or environment in which activities happen.
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What is anterograde amnesia?
Being unable to learn new information after suffering brain damage.
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What is hippocampus?
A brain structure that is crucial for memory.
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What is retrograde amnesia?
Loss of memory for events that happened before brain damage occurred.
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What was the aim of Underwood and Postman's study?
To see if new learning interferes with previous learning.
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How did Underwood and Postman carry out their study?
Participants were divided into two groups. Group A - learn a list of word pairs (cat-tree, candle-table), they were then asked to learn a second list. Group B - learn only first list. Both groups then had to recall the first list.
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What results did Underwood and Postman get?
Group B's recalling of the list was much more accurate.
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What is the conclusion for the Underwood and Postman study?
New learning will cause people to recall previously learned information less accurately.
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What was the aim of the Godden and Baddeley study?
To see if people who learn and are tested in the same environment will recall more information than those who learn and are tested in different environments.
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How did Godden and Baddeley carry out their study?
Participants were deep sea divers. They were split into four groups and were given the same list of words to learn. 1-learn underwater/recall underwater 2-learn underwater/recall shore 3-learn shore/recall shore 4-learn shore/recall underwater
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What results did Godden and Baddeley get?
Groups 1 and 3 (learn/recall same place) recalled 40% more than groups 2 and 4.
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What did Godden and Baddeley conclude?
Recall of information will be better if it happens in the same context that learning takes place.
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State the practical applications for amnesia and memory.
understanding memory loss, new information, context and brain structure could affect how students and teachers arrange their learning environment. E.g. when revising for exam at home revise at a desk and not on a bed.
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State what is meant by 'reliability'.
The extent to which eyewitness testimony can be regarded as accurate.
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What is a leading question?
A question that hints that a particular type of answer is required.
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What is a 'cognitive interview'?
A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event.
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What is stereotyping?
An oversimplified generalised set of ideas that we have about others.
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What factors might affect eyewitness testimony?
Context, leading questions, pre-conceived viewpoints and biases, time between incident and testimony, emotional state of witness past experiences of witness.
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What are the practical applications of factors affecting eyewitness testimonies?
Could help police and lawyers question witnesses differently and more effectively.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is storage?

Back

Holding information in the memory system

Card 3

Front

What is retrieval?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the multi-store explaination?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How long does the sensory store hold information?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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