What is coding
The format in which information is stored in various memory stores
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coding research 1
Baddeley-list of words to 4 groups, acoustically sim/dis sim and semantically sim/dis sim, had to recall in the correct order,straight after(STM) did worse on acoustically similar words so it is coded acoustically and after 20 mins(LTM) did worse on
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coding research 2
semantically similar words, so LTM is coded semantially.
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What is capacity
The amount of information that can be held in a memory store
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capacity research 1
Digit span-Jacobs-give e.g 4 digits and recall, if correct, more digits are added until they cannot recall order correctly. mean span for digits is 9.3 and letters is 7.3
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capacity research 2
miller-things come in 7s, suggesting capacity of STM is 7 items +/-2 and words are recalled as easily as letters through chunking.
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capacity research 3
Linton kept a diary for 7 years with 1100 diary entries and could recall remember most of it through cues.
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What is duration
the length of time information can be held in memory.
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Duration research 1
petersonx2 24 undergraduates- each took part in 8 trials, given a consonant syllable and a 3 digit number which was recalled backwards to prevent rehearsal-each trial stopped at a different time, 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 secs called the retention interval.
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Duration research 2
bahrick et al 392 pps from ohio aged 17-74, yearbooks obtained, recall through photo recognition of 50 photos-within 15 years 90% accurate, after 48 years dropped to 70%, free recall test of graduation class, 15 years 60%, 48 years 30%-LTM is long.
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Multistore model
Atkinson and shiffrin-stimulus from environment, sensory register(iconic, echoic),STM, LTM prolonged rehearsal to LTM, maintenance rehearsal and retrieval back to STM, LTM is unitary
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henry molaison,surgery to relieve his epilepsy, removed hippocampus from both sides of the brain, no LTM but STM performed well on.
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Types of LTM
Tulving-Episodic-personal events,retrieved consciously, declarative, explicit, semantic-knowledge of the world, declarative, explicit, procedural-knowledge of doing things and skills, non-declarative, implicit
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Clive wearing
global amnesia-damaged hippocampus, still plays piano but can't remember names
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Working memory model
Representation of STM, a dynamic processor using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system
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Central executive
coordinates the activities of the three sub systems and allocates processing resources to those activities, has a very limited processing capacity
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phonological loop
processes sounds written and spoken ,phonological store-words you hear, articulatory process-allows maintenance rehearsal of words in a loop
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Visuo spatial sketch/scratchpad
processes visual and spatial information in a mental space often called the inner eye-visual cache-visual data, inner scribe-records arrangement of objects in the visual field
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Episodic buffer
brings together material from other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands-provides a bridge between working memory and LTM
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Proactive interference
older memories disrupt the recall of newer memories
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retroactive interference
newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories
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Research into forgetting 1
Mcgeoch and Mc donald -learn a list of words until they could remember them with 100% accuracy-6 groups-synonyms,antonyms,words unrelated to original ones,nonsense syllables, three-digit numbers, no new list-when they recalled the original list, the
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Research into forgetting 2
most similar material (synonyms) produced the worst recall-interference is strongest when the memories are similar.
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what is retrieval failure
when we don't have the necessary cues to access a memory.
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What is a cue
a trigger of information that allows us to access a memory
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Encoding specificity principle
Tulving-if a cue is to help us recall information, it has to be present at encoding and at retrieval, otherwise forgetting may occur.
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Context-dependent forgetting
Godden and Baddeley-sea divers-divers learned a list of words -when learnt on land, recall was better on land, in water, recall was better under water. Accurate recall was 40% lower in non-matching conditions
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State dependent forgetting
Carter and cassaday-anti histamine -learn on drug, recall on drug, learn not on drug, recall on drug-performance was worse in non matching conditions as certain cues were not present.
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Leading questions
question which., because of the way it is phrased suggests a certain answer.
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Research into leading questions 1
Loftus and palmer-students watched clips of car accidents and were given questions about the accident. In the critical question-about how fast they...eachother-veb was changed everytime-hit,smashed,bumped,collided,contacted. The mean estimated spee..
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Research into leading questions 2
d was calculated for each ppt group. The verb contacted resulted in a mean of 31.8mph but smashed was 40.5mph.
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Conducted a second experiment-if they originally heard smashedthey were more likely to report broken glass than those who heard hit, even though no glass was broken.
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Post event discussion 1
Gabbert et al-studied pps in pairs-each ppt watched a video of the same crime from different point of view,both pps then discussed what they had seen. &!% of the ppd mistakenly recalled aspects they didn't see but picked up in discussion-when not dis
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post event discussion 2
cussed, this was 0%, concluding that witnesses often go along with each other, either to win social approval or because they believe the other witnesses were right and they were wrong called memory conformity.
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Anxiety has a negative effect on recall 1
Johnson and scott-led pps to believe they were taking part in a lab study-when seated in a waiting room, pps heard an argument inthe next room. in the low anx condition, a man walked through the waiting area, carrying a pen with grease on his hands,
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Anxiety has a negative effect on recall 2
other pps heard the same argument, but this time accompanied by broken glass. A man walked out of the room. he had a paper knife covered in blood, the high anxiety condition. The pps later picked out the man from a set of 50 photos,49% who saw the lc
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Anxiety has a negative effect on recall 3
were able to identify him, whilst 33% were in the hc. The tunnel theory suggests the witnesses attention narrows to focus on the weapon as it is a source of anxiety.
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Anxiety has a positive effect on recall 1
yuille and cutshall-real life shooting in canada, the shop owner shot the thief dead, 21 witnesses, 13 agreed to take part in the study-interviews were held 4-5 months after, witnesses were asked to rate how stressed they were at the time using a 7
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Anxiety has a positive effect on recall 2
point scale. details were very accurate, pps who reported the highest levels of stress were most accurate(88% compared to 75%).
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yerkes-dodson law
inverted u theory-performance will increase with stress, but only to a certain point where it decreases drastically.
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Cognitive interview
fisher and geiselman-report everything,reinstate the contect, reverse the order, change perspective
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coding research 1


Baddeley-list of words to 4 groups, acoustically sim/dis sim and semantically sim/dis sim, had to recall in the correct order,straight after(STM) did worse on acoustically similar words so it is coded acoustically and after 20 mins(LTM) did worse on

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coding research 2


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What is capacity


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capacity research 1


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