Memory - the beginning of the course, up to MSM

Who did a study on duration of short tem memory?
Peterson and Peterson
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When was a study on short tem memory duration conducted?
1959
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What did the study on duration of short tem memory involve?
Participants were shown a consonant trigram and then a number. They had to count backwards in threes during a retention interval, which began at 3 seconds and increased each time by 3 up to 18 seconds, to prevent maintenance rehearsal.
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What did the study on duration of short tem memory find?
That at 3 seconds, 90% of participants got the trigram correct. At 18 seconds, only 2% got it correct. Therefore, duration of short tem memory is 18-20 seconds.
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What is a criticism of this study?
The counting backwards in threes may have displaced the consonant trigram - when a study was done with audio instead of counting to prevent maintenance rehearsal, duration was longer.
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Who did a study on capacity of short tem memory?
Jacobs
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When was this study done?
1887
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What technique did this study use?
Digit span technique - showing participants a series of digits for a very short time and then asking them to recall them immediately
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What did this study show?
That short tem memory has a capacity of 9.3 numbers or 7.3 letters
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Who wrote an article on capacity of short tem memory?
George Miller
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When was this article written?
1956
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What was the article called?
The magic number seven plus or minus two
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What did this article say about chunking?
Chunking is when letters or numbers are grouped meaningfully so that they become a single piece of information so can be more easily recalled.
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What did Jacobs say about age and it’s relationship to short tem memory capacity?
Age increases capacity but Jacobs didn’t know whether that was down to better techniques or increased capacity
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What is a criticism of this article?
Longer chunks are harder to remember than shorter chunks, Cowan (2001) found that visual short tem memory may be limited to four items.
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Who did an experiment on duration of long term memory?
Shepard
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When was this experiment done?
1967
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What did the experiment involve?
Showing participants 612 memorable pictures and then an hour later, 612 pictures again but some were new. Asking participants which they’d seen before. Repeating 4 months later.
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What did the experiment show?
After an hour, participants were almost 100% correct. Even after 4 months, they were 50% correct. This shows that long term memory has a potentially unlimited duration.
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Who did a study on memory coding?
Alan Baddeley
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When did they do this study?
1966
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What did the study involve?
Participants were given two word lists - one of semantically similar words and another of acoustically similar words - and then asked to recall them straight away, and 20 minutes later.
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What did this study find?
Participants struggled in short tem memory to recall acoustically similar words and in long term memory struggled to remember semantically similar words. Therefore, short tem memory is acoustic and long term memory is semantic.
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What is a criticism of this study?
Various psychologists have found that both short tem memory and long term memory can code in different ways. E.g. Frost (1972) found that long term memory can be visually coded. There’s also questions whether 20 minutes really tests long term memory.
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What is a general criticism of these experiments?
They’re lab experiments so have low realism. The tasks also lack realism frequently. They’re done on university students so have low population validity.
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Who invented the multi-store model of memory?
Atkins and Shiffrin
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When was it invented?
1968
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What does it assume about memory stores?
They are separate and unitary
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How does information get into long term memory?
Maintenance rehearsal
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What is a better way to move memories into long term memory?
Elaborative rehearsal
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Who and when added this method?
Craick and Lockhart (1972)
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What case studies support the MSM?
K. F. was in a motorcycle accident and lost his acoustic and verbal short tem memory to the point where he could retain two chunks at a time but his long term memory was unaffected
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How does K. F. not support the MSM?
His visual short tem memory was unaffected, suggesting that there are different memory stores so they’re not unitary.
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What research supports the MSM?
Peterson and Peterson vs. Shepard, Baddeley
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What research other supports the MSM?
Squire et al. found that the hippocampus is most active in long term memory and Beardsley (1997) found the prefrontal cortex is only used for short tem memory.
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Who did research to support the sensory register?
Sperling
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When was this done?
1960
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What did his experiment involve?
Showing participants a grid of letters for 1/20 second and then either playing a tone (high, medium, or low) to designate the row that must be recalled, or making participants recall the whole grid.
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What did the experiment find?
Participants were much more successful remembering only a row so duration of sensory register is very short.
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What is the exact duration of sensory register?
1/4 second for visual stimuli and 4 seconds for auditory stimuli
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When was a study on short tem memory duration conducted?

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1959

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What did the study on duration of short tem memory involve?

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What did the study on duration of short tem memory find?

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What is a criticism of this study?

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