Episodic Memory
Ability to recall events in ones life; like a diary of events. It is complex as each memory has several layers e.g people, places, behaviour. It needs a concious effort to be remembered.
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Semantic Memory
Knowledge of the world; facts in the broadest sense. combination of a dictionary and encyclopedia. e.g apply to university and the meaning of words. Meaning of words = 'love' and 'dog'. Less personal and not time stamped. Constantly being added too.
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Procedural Memory
Memory of actions, skills and how we do things. can be recalled without conscious awareness. e.g shifting gears in a car
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Clinical Evidence For LTM stores
HM and Clive Wearing; brain damage that caused amnesia. Damaged Episodic memory; difficulty recalling past. Procedural and semantic memory unaffected. Clive could play piano ect
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Brain Scans For LTM stores
Tulving; got participants to do various tasks while under PET scanner. Epiosdic came from right perfrontal cortex and semantic came from left prefrontal cortex. Confirmed in many later studies.
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Disagree with LTM stores
Squire (1980) states that there is two stores. Declarative memory is consciously recalled and semantic and episodic are part of that store. Non-declarative are unconsciously recalled and that is procedural memeory.
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Short Term Memory
Limited capacity store; coding is acoustic and capacity is between 5-9 bits of info. It's duration is 18-30 seconds.
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Coding in STM
Baddeley et al; Participants that had acoustically similar words to remember from a list and when told to recall straight away (STM recall), had a difficult time doing so. The conclusion gathered is STM is acounstically processed.
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Capacity in STM
Joseph Jacobs (1887) Created a techinque to measure digit span. Concluded people have a digit span of 7 and a letter span of 9.
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Capacity in STM
Miller (1956) observed 'chunking' and noted everything was in groups of seven e.g days of the week, musical scale. Conclusion: capacity of STM is about 7 (+/-2)
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Duration in STM
Peterson & Peterson (1959) pps told to remeber a triagram and three digit number. Asked to count back from number;prevent rehersal. Stopped @ diff times = retention interval. Asked to recall trigram; incorrect answers when interval was longer.
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Artificial Stimulus for STM research
Baddeley asked pps to look at a list of words = lacks ecological validity; no personal meaninf to pps. Can it be generalised and trusted? If meaningful info was used maybe semantic memory would have been used. Applications of study is limited.
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Artificial Stimulus for STM research
Peterson and peterson conducted in artificial setting;remembering a triagram does not reflect real life. Lacks external validity. Yet, sometime we DO remember meaningless info = phone numbers.
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Research conducted Long time ago for STM
Jacobs' reserach was conducted a long time ago. Psychology then did not have adequet controls; pps may have been distacted when tested, results invalid due to confounding variables. Yet, Jacob's resarch is supported by modern research - valid.
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Overestimated Capacity Of STM
Miller overestimated; Cowan (2001) reviewd other studies and concluded STM capacity is about 4. This may be due to modern advances in research as Miller's study was conducted in the 50s.
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Multi Store Model of Memory
Propsed by Atkin and Shiffrin. Memory operates in three stores. The model explains how ifo is transferred from one store to the another, how info is rememberd and forgotten. The stores are linked together by processing.
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MSM; Sensory Register
Info taken in by senses via our environment. Main stores; iconic which is visual coded and echoic which is acosutic coding. Ver brief duration; less that second. High Capacity. To pass info to next store, it must be paid attention to.
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MSM; Short Term Memory
Limited capacity Store; Only hold a number of items before forgetting occurs. Capacity is 5-9 items. Coded acoustically and duration is 18-30 seconds.Maintence Rehearsal must occur for info to go to LTM. MUST BE REPEATED!
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MSM; Long Term Memory
permenant memory store for info that has been rehearsed over time. Capacity and duration is unlimited and it is coded semantically. When recall occurs, info goes from LTm back to STM and this is called retrival.
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Supporting Study for MSM
Supporting study from Baddeley; showcases how LTM is sematically coded and STM is aucostically coded. Gives strength and credability to findings
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MSM is a limited explanation?
Thw working Memory model highlights how the STM is actually composed of differerent parts. Furthermore, Tulving argues that long term memory has seperate stores, three to be precise.
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Not everything is rehearsed?
Some memories from the STM are not rehearsed and still end up in LTM. This gives doubt to the MSM's model.
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Artificial Research for MSM
Our memories that we form daily are regarding useful things such as people, places, facts ect. Reserach into the MSM used digits, letters or words. This has no meaning to a person = lack of ecological validity. Can this be generalised to real life?
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Reterival Faliure
Forgetting happens due to insufficent cues. When info is stored, associated cues are also stored. If at recall cues are unavailable, then we cannot access said memory. 'forgetting' occurs.
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Encoding Specificity Principle
Tulving reviewd reterival failure research and noted a pattern. ESP; when recalling info, cue that was present at encoding must be present at recall. If cues are differnt at recall, forgetting occurs. Cues can be meaningful or non-meaningful.
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External: Context dependent Forgetting
Godden and Baddely; deep sea divers told to learn list of words. either on water or land; then recall either on water or land. Recall was 40% lower in non-matching conditions. external cue different from one at recall thus retrieval failure.
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Internal: State dependent Forgetting
Cater and Cassaday; Gave anti hestamine drugs which have mild sedative; created a different internal state. Given list of words. Then had to recall; 4 conditions. Result; when internal state was differnet from encoding and recall, forgetting occured.
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Supporting Evidence for Retrieval Failure
Baddeley and Cassaday's research showcase the validity of the theory. More so, Eysneck (2010) stated that RF is the main reason of forgetting from LTM.
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Encoding Spcificity Principle; untestable?
Cannot be tested and leads to circular reasoning. It is just based on assumptions. There is no way to independently establish whether a cue has been ecoded or not.
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Context dependent Questionable?
Baddeley used an extreme case of cue difference in recall and encoding. These differences don't tend to occur in real life. Limitation to real life applications due to context dependent not explaining forgetting effectively.
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Recall vs Recognition
Context effect maybe be related to kind of memeory being tested. Baddley recreated his experiment but used recognition task instead of recall. In this experiement, there was no context dependent effect; preformance was the same in all conditions.
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The Working Memory Model
STM model of memory; concerned with when the mind is active and temporarily storing and manipulating Information. Consists of four main parts that all have different coding and capacity,
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Central Executive
Attentional proccess; monitors all incoming data. It makes decisions and allocates jobs to other 'slave systems.' Limited capacity.
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Phonological loop
One of the slave systems; deals with auditory info and codes it acoustically. Preserves info in order og which comes first. Divided it to two; phonological store is where you store words you hear; Articulatoy process allows maintenance rehersal.
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Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
Slave system; stores visual and spatial info. Limited capacity;about 3/4 bits of info. Two sections; visual cache that stores visual data; The inner scribe that records the arrangement of objects in the visual field.
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Episodic Buffer
Slave system; temporary store for memory/informantion. Integrates visual, verbal and spatial info of all stores. Maintains time sequencing; records events that are happening. Storage unit for Central Executive? Limited capacity. Links STM to LTM.
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Clinical Evidence for WMW
Case study of KF; suffered brain damage and had poor STM ability for verbal info. However, he could process visual info. e.g could not recall sounds yet could recall letters. Phonological loop had been damaged yet rest of memory was intact. Validity!
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Dual Task Preformance for STM
Supporting Reserach; Baddeley's research showed pps had difficulty doing two visual tasks than doing a visual and verbal task at the same time. Due to the fact, pps using same slave system. Support for seperate slave systems!
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Lack of clarity; Central Executive
Unsatisfactory to many cognitive psychologists; doesn't explain much. More clearly defined and specified than just simply being 'attention.' May have different components? Incomplete Model.
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Inteference Theory
Exp for Forgetting; one memory blocks another, causing the latter to be forgotten or distorted. Concened with forgetting in LTM. Memories in LTM cannot be forgotten; they simply becoem unavilable through inteference, making them harder to locate.
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Proactive inteference
When an older memory intefers with the recall of a newer memory. E.g a teacher has learnt so many names in the past, she has difficulty learning names of her current students.
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Retroactive Inteference
A newer memory intefer with the recall of an older memory. E.g a teacher ha slearnt so many new student names, she has difficulty recalling students from her past class.
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Mcdonald (1931)
Inteference when memories are similar. Pps given list words to learn that were easy. They were given a second list of words to learn;6 variations of the second list. Accuracy of 1 list depended on 2 list; similar material 2 list = bad recall of 1.
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Lab study Evidence for Inference Theory
Consistently tested in psycology; many lab experiments. Lab experiments are reliable, high levels of control. Valid explantaion for forgetting.
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Artificial Material
Intefernece not in real-life? Given Stimulus material is list of words; very differnt from what is learnt in everyday life. eg. Faces, places ect Inteference more likely in lab than everyday life. Lack of ecological validity!
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Baddeley and Hitch (1977) supporting Inteference
Inteference tested in real-life situations. Rugby players had better recall of a match that occured 3 weeks ago if they did not have a match since; those who did have matches, had worse recall of the match 3 weeks ago. Applied to real life;Valid!
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Misleading Information's influence on Eyewitness Testimony
Accuracy of eyewitness can depend on leading questions and post event discussion.
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Leading Questions
Loftus and Palmer; watched car crash video and given questions. Critical question; 'How fast were the cars going when they hit one another?' Hit was replaced with a series of words allocated to different groups. All indicated different speeds.
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Leading Question #2
Mean speed calculated; 'smashed' gave a very high speed and 'contacted' gave a very low speed. Very differnt from the actual speed.
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Leading Questions; Response-bias explanation
Wording of question does not affect memory; influences response. 'smashed' were encouraged to give a higher speed reading.
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Loftus and Palmer; Glass Question
Wording of question actually changes memory? Pps who had 'smashed' reported seeing glass to those in 'hit.' Critical verb altered memory?
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Post Event Disscusion
Multiple witnesses to event; they may discuss with one another which reduces accuracy of eye witness testiomony. Combine their own information and misinformation from others.
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Post Event Discussion; Gabbert (2003)
Pps shown video in pairs; each from a differnt angle. One could see what he other could not. Had a disscusion after; indivisualy completed a test of recall. 71% of pps reported incorrect info picked in discussion. Control,no discussion= better recall
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Misleading Information; Artificial Task
Watching a clip is different from experiencing the said event. Lack the same impact; inaccurate portrayal of real life situations. Lack of ecological validity.
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Misleading Information; Useful real-life applications
Strength; pratical in police force and investigation. Police officers should be careful on phrasing of sentence. Important in improving legal system and court trials of witnesses.
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Misleading Information; Indivisual differences
Rhodes (2006) Younger people are more accurate in recall than older indivisual. Yet, both are very accurate in recall of those in their own age bracket. (own age bias)
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Eyewitness Testimony; Anxiety has a negative effect on recall
Anxiety causes psychological arousal which prevents us on focusing on important cues, making recall worse.
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Weapon-Focus Effect
Johnson and Scott; Pps placed in seating room. Hear an arguement; 2 conditions. 'Low anxiety' man comes out of room holding a pen with grease on hands. 'High anxiety' hear glass breaking and man comes out with paper knife and blood on his hands.
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Weapon - Focus Effect #2
Pps then had to pick man's face from a line up. Those who were subjected to low anxiety condition picked man out. Those subjected to high anxiety could not. Tunnel Theory = Focused on weapon as caused anxiety.
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Eyewitness Testimony; Anxiety has a positive effect on recall
Stress of a situation creates anxiety; physicological arousal within the body. Fight or Flight response is triggered; alterness increased and memory of event is improved as we are more aware of cues.
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Cutshall (1986) ; Positive effect of Anxiety
Real-life; shooting in a shop where a thief was shot dead. 13 witnesses; asked to recall event 4/5 months after. Compared to the original police interview. Had to also rate anxiety.
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Cutshall's Findings
Witnesses were very accurate in recall; little change from police interviews. The participant who had higher anxiety had better recall.
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Yerkes-Dodson Law
Explain Contradictory findings; Relationship between emotional arousal and prefromance lookes like an 'inverted U'. low anxiety brings low recall; yet medium anxiety brings the optimum recall; too high anxiety brings low recall. Need a balance
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Weapon Focus vs Unusalness
Pickel et; video of hairdress activity with differnt hand held objects (Rubber chicken, handgun, scissors) People had lower recall with unsual objects.
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Ethical with Anxiety research
Creating an anxiety high situation can cause psyhological harm. Also deception was used in Johnson and Scotts
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Field studies can lack control
Within Cutshall's research, the time between the police interview and Cutshall's interview could not be controlled. Within period, pps could have disscussed with others, seen media, affects of police interview Impposible to contol extraneous variable
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Cognitive Interview
Fisher and Geiselman; use btter techniques when interviewing witnesses; psychological insight into memory.
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Cognitive Interview #1
Report Everything; encouraged to report all detail; even if it appears trivial. Might trigger important memories.
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Cognitive Interview #2
Reinstate the context; return to the original crime state in 'the mind.' encouraged to remember the environment and their emotions.
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Cognitive Interview #3
Reverse the Order; recall from a different chronological order. For example, for the middle to the beginning. Done to prevent; people reporting expectation and to prevent dishonesty.
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Cognitive Interview #4
Change perspective; recall event from another person's persepective. Done to prevent expectation and schema on recall.
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Enhanced Cognitive Interview
Additional elements added; focused on socila dynamics of interaction. Interviewer; be aware of eye contact, reduce eyewitness anxiety, minimse distraction, make witness speak slow and open questions.
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Cognitive interview is time consuming
Police are reluctant; delays ivestigation, takes more time and require special training.
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All elements of the cognitive interview are useful
Bull et al; all factors of the interview are valuable and produced more than the averge police interview. report everything and reinstalment did show the best recall.
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Cognitive interview Weakness
An increase of inaccurte info; Kohnken found an increase of 81% in correct info but also 61% increase of incorrect info. In comparsion to standard police interview!!!
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Knowledge of the world; facts in the broadest sense. combination of a dictionary and encyclopedia. e.g apply to university and the meaning of words. Meaning of words = 'love' and 'dog'. Less personal and not time stamped. Constantly being added too.


Semantic Memory

Card 3


Memory of actions, skills and how we do things. can be recalled without conscious awareness. e.g shifting gears in a car


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


HM and Clive Wearing; brain damage that caused amnesia. Damaged Episodic memory; difficulty recalling past. Procedural and semantic memory unaffected. Clive could play piano ect


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Tulving; got participants to do various tasks while under PET scanner. Epiosdic came from right perfrontal cortex and semantic came from left prefrontal cortex. Confirmed in many later studies.


Preview of the back of card 5
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