Memory

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MSM Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
Multi-store model
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MSM Crowder
Sensory memory only retains info in the ionic store for a few milliseconds but for 2-3 seconds in the echoic store
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MSM Sperling
Grid of letters for less than a second - people recalled on average 4 letters. Further research - ionic memory held up to 10 items but decays before we can report it all (within about 2 seconds)
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MSM Joseph Jacobs
Digit span technique - random sequence of digits to be repeated in serial order. Memory span was the longest sequence of items recalled accurately at least 50% of the time. 5-9 items recalled on average.
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MSM George Miller
Magic number 7 plus or minus 2. CHUNKING - 7 plus or minus 2 chunks can be stored
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MSM Herb Simon
Tested chunking with words and phrases. Confirmed chunking is a good way to measure memory span
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MSM Peterson and Peterson
Brown-Peterson technique - person given random trigram then immediately asked to do interference task (count backwards in 3s from 999) for 3, 6 and 18 seconds then asked to repeat trigram. 3 - 80%. 6 - 50%. 18 - under 10%
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MSM Standing et al
Found that on a test of LTM using recognition of pictures, 90% of 2560 pictures were remembered
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MSM Solso
Computer analogy - we use only a fraction of the brain's power and capacity
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MSM Bharick
392 American ex-high school students aged 17-74 had to free recall classmates names then do a photo recognition test. Fewer classmates forgotten when given the cue of a photo.
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MSM Baddeley
Tested acoustically similar and dissimilar wordlists in serial order and found no difference in no. of words recalled unlike STM. Tested semantically similar and dissimilar wordlists in LTM and found semantically similar words were confused.
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WMM Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Working memory model
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WMM Miyake et al
WMM reductionist
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WMM KF case study
verbal not visual affected - must be separate stores
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WMM Lieberman
Blind people have excellent spacial awareness despite never having any visual info
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WMM De-Groot
Expert chess players had better memory for chess positions when placed within known rules but when random, no better memory
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Tulving
Radioactive gold. Episodic - frontal lobe. Semantic - posterior regions
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Cohen and Squire
Types of LTM - Procedural and Declarative
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Clive Wearing
Infection, kept procedural, couldn't convert STM into LTM
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KF
Motorcycle accident, capacity of STM reduced to 2
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HM
Epilepsy - lobotomy. Kept procedural. Couldn't covert STM into LTM
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Elizabeth Loftus
Anxiety and Weapon focus. Office situation. Knife 30% recall of culprit. Pen 49% recall. BANK SITUATION
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Pickel
Gun club - no weapon focus
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Valentine et al
300 line ups. No weapon focus behind glass
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Deffenbacher
Stress. better recall when less anxiety (face identification - 54% low 42% high. Details of crime 64% low 52% high)
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Yerkes-Dodson Law
Inverted U theory of arousal
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Bothwell et al
Individual differences. Low neuroticism (50% recall low stress and 75% high stress). High neuroticism (68% low stress and 32% high stress)
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Geisalman et al
Cognitive interview recall 41.2%. Hypnosis 38%. Standard interview 29.4%
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Fisher and Giesalman
Created eyewitness testimony
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Baddeley and Hitch - Forgetting
Rugby union games recalled. Forgetting due to number of games played rather than time passed
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Schmidt et al
Memory of street names learned through childhood. 1700 former students from a Dutch elementary school. 211 responded to questionnaire. Positive association between number of times moving and number of street names forgotten. retroactive interference
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Karon and Widener
WWII veterans repressed battlefield trauma but recovered with therapy.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sensory memory only retains info in the ionic store for a few milliseconds but for 2-3 seconds in the echoic store

Back

MSM Crowder

Card 3

Front

Grid of letters for less than a second - people recalled on average 4 letters. Further research - ionic memory held up to 10 items but decays before we can report it all (within about 2 seconds)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Digit span technique - random sequence of digits to be repeated in serial order. Memory span was the longest sequence of items recalled accurately at least 50% of the time. 5-9 items recalled on average.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Magic number 7 plus or minus 2. CHUNKING - 7 plus or minus 2 chunks can be stored

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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