Memory

The process of recieving information, changing it to make sense, storing it, and retrieving it for use.
Information processing
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Receiving information, i.e. senses
Input
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Changing the information to make sense of it and assign meaning to it
Encoding
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Storing the meaningful information as a memory
Storage
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Accessing information from our memory storage
Retrieval
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Using the retrieved information to do something
Output
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When we know something, but cannot access the memory
Accessibility problems
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When information has been forgotten and is no longer available
Availability problems
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The theory that memory has three different stores, and that information can move between them. Which store it is in affects how long we can remember it.
Multi-store model of memory
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The store with the most limited capacity and duration. If information is not paid attention to and processed, it will be lost.
Sensory store
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How long is the sensory store's duration?
1/2 a second
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Memory store with a limited capacity and duration. If information is not rehearsed, it will be lost.
Short-term memory (STM)
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How long will information last in STM?
30 seconds
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What must be done to transfer information from STM to LTM?
The information must be rehearsed.
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The repetition of information in order to remember it
Rehearsal
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How long must something be rehearsed to retain it?
30 seconds
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The process by which information is overwritten as a result of limited capacity
Displacement
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The store with unlimited capacity and duration
Long-term memory (LTM)
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What can happen to information in LTM?
Information may be overwritten or distorted
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The process by which unrehearsed information is forgotten
Decay
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The shallowest form of processing
Iconic (visual)
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The deepest form of processing
Semantic (meaning)
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The auditory form of processing (relatively shallow)
Acoustic
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Three criticisms of the multi-store model of memory theory
1. Low ecological validity (the model was constructed using research focused on new facts) 2. STM's role as a passive holding space (STM seems to be more complex than presented in the theory). 3. LTM holds procedural and declarative memory
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Knowledge of what we know
Declarative memory
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Knowledge of how to do things
Procedural memory
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The alternate theory that information storage is based more on the amount of processing applied, i.e. if information is more meaningful, it will be paid more attention, and better remembered.
The levels of processing theory
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Does the levels of processing theory differentiate between STM and LTM?
No
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In this theory, what determines whether something is remembered or forgotten?
How much the information is processed
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Remembering things at the beginning of a list
The primacy effect
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Remembering things at the end of a list
The recency effect
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The overall effect of the position of things on a list on how they are recalled
The serial position effect
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Which theory does the serial position effect support?
Mainly the multi-store model of memory, although it doesn't rule out the levels of processing theory.
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Why is the levels of processing theory difficult to test/research?
It is difficult to measure how much and in what way things are processed, as it is specific to individual, subjective importance.
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What is the core study for memory (name and year)?
W. S. Terry (2005)
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What experimental design was used?
Independent groups
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What are independent groups?
Separate groups of participants each operating under different conditions.
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What year was the study conducted in?
2005
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By who?
W. S. Terry
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How many participants were in experiment 1?
39
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What was the procedure for experiment 1?
The students watched half of the adverts and were then asked to recall them in any order (free recall). They watched the remaining adverts and were asked to do a distractor task before recalling them (delayed recall).
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How many adverts did they watch overall?
60
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A task participants do to distract them
Distractor task
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Recall in any order
Free recall
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Recall after a distractor task
Delayed recall
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What effects did experiment one show?
The serial position effect - the primacy effect (immediate recall) and the recency effect (delayed recall)
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How many participants were in experiment 2?
27
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Were they the same participants as in experiment 1?
No
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What was the procedure used in experiment 2?
Students watched a comedy programme with 3 commercial breaks, then asked to recall the adverts they had seen.
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What effect did experiment 2 show?
The primacy effect (serial positions effect)
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What sort of tests were experiments 1 and 2?
Recall tests (and delayed recall in experiment 1)
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How many participants were in experiment 3?
23
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What was the procedure for experiment 3?
Students watched a TV show with 3 commercial breaks, then shown a list of products and asked if they recognised any of the products they had seen advertised.
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What effect was shown in experiment 3?
The primacy effect
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What kind of test was experiment 3?
Recognition test
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How old were the commercials? Why?
10 months, so that they wouldn't be too familiar to the students
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Name a limitation to do with gender
Some commercials may have appealed more to different genders, and therefore been better remembered by them
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Name three limitations to do with the participants
The sample was small, unequal in gender, and all students. This makes the results non-generalisable as the participants may not have been representative of the population.
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Why was the ecological validity of the study a limitation?
It was performed in laboratory conditions, although Terry did try to make it as life-like as possible by using TV shows and commercials.
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Name a final limitation
Students may have shown demand characteristics
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What is the general term for applications of research into memory?
Memory aids
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'Hooks' to help us retrieve information
Use of cues
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Cues to do with associated information, setting, or environment (among other things)
Context-dependent cues
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Linking images too words, or visualising related things to help you remember something
Use of Imagery
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Processing information as semantic memories
Use of meaning
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When information is stored in a structured or logical way
Organisation in memory
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General categories divided into sub-categories, divided into specific information (type of organisation)
Hierarchical organisation
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A central idea with branches leading to more minor concepts, often involving picture and colour
Mind-mapping
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What is the core theory for memory?
Multi-store model of memory
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What is the alternate theory for memory?
Levels of processing theory
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What is the core study for memory?
W. S. Terry (2005)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Receiving information, i.e. senses

Back

Input

Card 3

Front

Changing the information to make sense of it and assign meaning to it

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Storing the meaningful information as a memory

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Accessing information from our memory storage

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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