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  • Created on: 09-05-18 09:28
What is memory?
The mental recall and store of experiences and infomation
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Types of memory
Sensory Register, Short term, Long term
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Why is memory important?
Without it: we couldn't learn, survive alone, retain info
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What is a model?
A physical representation of something construct and makes it concrete
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Who created the Multi-Store Model of Memory? When?
Atkinson & Shiffrin - 1968
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Describe the MSMM
Environmental stimuli-> Sensory register --attention--> Short Term- kept through maintenance rehearsal, accessed by info retrieval--elaborate rehearsal--> Long Term (accessed through retrieval)
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Positive eval of MSMM
-Supporting studied e.g Baddeley, HM, Clive Wearing, KF, Murdock -Good comprehensible model for describing
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KF Case Study
Shallice & Warrington (1970) - Amnesic: STM poor when digits read to him (echoic). STM better when he read them (ioncic) - separate stores
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HM Case Study
anterograde amnesia- couldn't create new LTM, STM not affected
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Clive Wearing
couldn't transfer STM to LTM - separate stores
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Murdock Study
Serial Position Effect (1962) METHOD-Ppts shown list of words (10-40). Words presented for 1/2 secs. The recalled. RESULTS- first words recalled (primary effect LTM), last words recalled (recency effect STM),middle words lost-not rehearsed(asymptote)
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What did Glanzer and Cunitz do?
Repeated Murdock's study but used brown-peterson technique after to prevent rehearsal. RESULTS- recency effect disappeared
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What is the brown-peterson technique?
Cognitive exercise- Count down from large number in 3s
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Limitations of MSMM
Too simplistic, suggests each store is just one unit, suggests there is only one way info goes from STM to LTM, only focuses on structure and not processes
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What are the two main modalities of the Sensory Register?
Echoic (hearing) Iconic (sight)
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How does the SR encode?
Takes in info from environment and stores it in its raw form as a modality
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What is the study for encoding in the SR?
Crowder (1993)- SR retains iconic info for a few milliseconds and echoic for 2-3 seconds- shows that there are different stores
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What is the duration of the SR?
Almost instant without attention- less than a second
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What is the capacity of the SR?
Large but not unlimited
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What is the study for capacity and duration of SR?
SPERLING (1960)- to find existence of SR. METHOD-ppts looked at letters for less than second then recalled. After, had to recall specific rows according to pitch of tone. RESULTS- recalled 4/5 but aware of more. With tone recalled 3x more.
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What does Sperling's study show?
Attention is important for recall, the image fades fast
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Strengths of Sperling
High control, establish causality, valid results
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Limitations of Sperling
Lack of ecological validity, artificial task, low external validity
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2 supporting studies of Sperling
Walsh&Thompson(1978) Found SR stores iconic for 500milisec and decreases w/age. Treisman(1964)passed same message through ears with delay. If delay less than 2secs they could tell they're the same. So echoic-2sec duration.
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Encoding of STM
Largely acoustic, recieves info from SR that was attended to, kept through maintenance rehersal
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Study of encoding in STM
Baddeley(1966) Ppts read out 4 lists of words- semantically similar and dissimilar, acoustically similar and dissimilar. ACOUSTICALLY SIMILAR most difficult- so STM encodes acoustically (all stored in same place- hard to differentiate)
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Eval of Baddeley
artifical stimuli, ungeneralisable
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Capacity of STM
Limited: 7+/-2 chunks of info. Rest lost through displacement.
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Study for capacity of STM
Miller(1956) - 'Magical number 7 plus or minus 2' article
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Supporting study of Miller
Jacobs(1887)-test capacity. Tested 443 female students ages 8-19. Had to repeat back list of letters or words, adding one on every time.RESULTS-av.7.3 letters & 9.3 words. recall improved w/age
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Eval of Miller
-Didn't specify size of each chunk, cannot conclude exact capacity of STM, didn't take into account other factors e.g. age
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Duration of STM
Limited when rehearsal is prevented
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Study of duration of STM
Peterson&Peterson(1959)-24ppts given trigrams (3letters). Then brown-peterson technique, the recalled.RESULTS-Longer the delay-less recalled. 3secs-80%. 18secs-less than 10%.
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Eval point of Peterson&Peterson
Artifical stimulus
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Encoding in LTM
Largely semantic, different types of LTM stored in different areas.
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Study of encoding in LTM
Baddely(1966) Ppts learn list of either semantically similar, dissimilar, acoustically similar, dissimilar. Recalled list after 20mins. RESULTS- struggled to recall semantically similar- so LTM encodes semantically
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Capacity of LTM
Unlimited-info lost through decay/interference
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Study of Capacity of LTM
Anokin(1973) number of neural connections in brain is 1w/10.5mil km of 0s- no human can use entire capacity. Wagenaar(1986)created diary of 2400 events and tested himself.RESULTS-good recall-large capacity
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Eval of Wagenaar
Case study, bias, ungenerlisable unuseful
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Eval of Capacity of LTM
Studies haven't established a finite capacity but doesn't mean there isn't one.
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Duration of LTM
Unlimited, recognition is better than recall, nature of the memor matters. Atkinson&Shiffrin suggest a link between rehearsal and strength of memory
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Study for Duration of LTM
Bahrick(1975) 392 american grads shown year book- had to match names to faces. RESULTS- after 14 years 90% correct, after 47 years, 60% correct. So duration is lifetime, supports semantically encoding
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Eval of Bahrick
Ungeneralisable- sample bias, causality on correlation BUT high external validity real life
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3 Types of LTM & who suggested them?
Tulving (1985)- Semantic, Episodic, Procedural
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What are the two categories of the types of LTM?
Declarative (Semantic & Episodic) Implicit (procedural)
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What is semantic memory?
Knowledge of facts and the world, not attached to time or place, or always personal
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What is episodic memory?
Events in your life, linked to time and place, personal
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What is procedural memory?
Memory of skills/actions e.g riding a bike, don;t require conscious effort to recall.
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3 parts of evidence of 3 different types
Clinical, Neuroimaging, Heindel (1988)
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Clinical Evidence
Rosenbaum et al(2005): KC-brain damage affecting bilateral hippocampal lesions. Remembered semantic but not episodic. HM&Clive Wearing-brain damage-only episodic affected.
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Clinical Evidence
De Renzi et al(1987)- lady w/herpes encephalitis affecting left temporal lobe. Semantic affected-not episodic. Man w/damage to right temporal lobe- episodic affected-not semantic
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Neuroimaging evidence
Tulving(1994) Ppts did memory test whilst having PET scans. RESULTS- episodic located right prefrontal cortex, semantic left prefrontal cortex, procedural- cerebullum & basal ganglia
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Neuroimaging eval
Supports physical reality of different LTM. backed up by research-valid.
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Heindel (1988)
Evidence for separate semantic and procedural. Studied huntingdon disease patients- they could learn new semantic but not procedural
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Postituve eval of 3 types of LTM
If we can identify different LTMs, pyschologists can target certain kinds of memory to help people. BELLEVILLE(2006)- helped people improve episodic memory- most effected type of LTM from cognitive imparement.
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Negative Eval
Cohen & Squire-2 types only- declaratives count as one
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Who designed the Working Model of Memory?
Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
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What is it a model for?
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What is working memory?
The part you actively use whist working on something and deals with info you're engaged in.
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What four parts does it consist of?
Central Executive, Visuo-spatial sketchpad, Episodic buffer, phonological loop
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What are the features of the Central Executive?
ATTENTIONAL SYSTEM-controls two other slave systems, limited processing capacity, attends to received info and allocates it so correct slave system
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What are the features of the Visuo-spatial sketchpad?
SLAVE SYSTEM- deals with iconic info and visual memories. AKA inner eye, info coded using mental pictures
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What are the subdivisions of the Visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Inner Scribe and Visual Cache
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What are the functions of the subdivions?
CE allocates info to Visual Cache or Inner Scribe depending on data. Visual cache- deals with form and colour then transfers to inner scribe. Inner scribe- deals w/spatial relationships then transfers to CE.
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What are the features of the phonological loop?
Deals with echoic info. Info goes round in a loop in order
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What are the subdivisions of the phonological loop and their functions?
Primary Acoustic Store (passively holds stored info). Articulatory Process (actively rehearses info. capacity- 2secs worth of what you can say)
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What are the features of the episodic buffer?
Storage component of CE. Integrates info from PL and VSS and LTM. Explains how we temporarily hold info. Used when meaningful info is presented and needs integration from many sources. Limited capacity&duration-4 chunks for a few secs.
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Study supporting Central Executive
Bunge(2000). Method- Ppts carried out one task, then two tasks that use the CE whilst having an MRI scan. RESULTS- activity shown in prefrontal cortex. activity rose w/2 tasks.
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Study supporting Visuo-spatial sketchpad
Baddeley, Grant, Wight, Thompson(1973). Test if we can use VSS for 2 simultaneous tasks. Ppts given visual tracking task whilst describing angles of letter F. ALso did verbal task. RESULTS- v.hard to do 2 visual tasks-same store.
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Study supporting Phonological Loop
Baddeley, Thompson and Bucannan(1975). Testing word length effect. Ppts shown 2 lists for a few secs. first-monosyllabic, 2nd-polysyllabic. Had to recall after each list. RESULTS- recalled more short words. PL capacity- how long it takes to say word
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When and why will the word length effect disappear?
When given an articulatory suppression task- ties up articulatory process- can't rehearse info.
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Study supporting Episodic Buffer
Alkhalifa(2009) reported patient with impared LTM. Demonstrated STM capacity of 23 chunks. Beyond the capacity of just the PL and VSS. Must be another storage system.
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Study supporting of the WMM
KF- brain damage to left occipital lobe. STM damaged- not LTM. Could remember words better iconically than echoically. Suggests PL damages but not VSS- different stores
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Strengths of WMM
Explains why we can do 2 different tasks better than similar tasks. Real like applications. Backed up by neuroscans and dual task tests. Explains word length effect.
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Limitations of WMM
Evidence suggests CE isn't one unit. Noon ecan really explain CE- some think it does more than just allocate info.
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What are the two explanations of forgetting?
Interference Theory. Retrieval Theory.
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What is the Interference Theory?
When two pieces of info conflict with eachother, causing one or both to be forgotten or distorted.
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What are the two types of interference?
Proactive (old memories affect new ones). Retroactive (New memories affect old ones)
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What is the similarity effect?
Interference is worse when the memories are similar
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Study for Retroactive interference
McGEOCH&McDONALD(1931)- Ppts learnt a list correctly then split into 6 groups and learnt list w/different levels of similarity to 1st one. Lists- synonyms,antonyms,unrealated,nonense syllables,3didgit numbers, Control:no new list.
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Study for Retroactive interference- results
Recalled old list- Findings- synonyms: 1.3, antonyms 1.7, unrealated 2.2, nonense syllables 2.5, 3didgit numbers 3.5, no new list 4.5. So-more similar=worse interference
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Eval of McGeoch & McDonald
GOOD- Lab experiment, control group. BAD- artificial task, low external validity
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Strengths of Interference Theory
Lab experiments support it, proactive&retroactive are reliable and robust effects
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Limitations of Interference Theory
Artificial tasks, ungeneralisable, doesn't explain how the cognitive processes happen, difficult to distinguish interference from other effects/theories e.g. decay
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Supporting study of Interference Theory
BADDELEY & HITCH(1977)-compared interference&decay. Asked rugby players teams theyd played in season. Most hadn't played all matches- some played week ago, some 3.RESULTS- recall not dependent of time off, but number of games- more inference
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Eval of BADDELEY & HITCH(1977)
natural experiment: ecological validity, generalisable, external BUT lack of control
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Who suggested retrieval failure
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What is retrieval failure?
We forget because there are insufficient cues
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What is Tulving's principle?
ENCODING SPECIFICITY PRINCIPLE-the greater the similarity between encoding event and retrieval event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory.u
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2 types of retrieval faliure
Context-dependent(external, environmental cues), state-dependant (internal cues)
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Context-dependent study
ABERNETHY(1940)- students tested weekly(4 groups) either- same room&teacher, same room diff teacher, diff room same teacher, diff room&teacher. FINDINGS-same room&teacher did best
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State-dependent study
Carter&Cassaday(1998)-ppts took antihistimines-drowsy. Learnt list of words either: learnt on drug, recall on, learn on, reacall on, e.t.c. FINDINGS- mismatch conditions-worse recall. cues were absent.
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Positive eval for retrieval failure
Supporting research, Michael Eyesenck(2010) argues it is the most important reason for forgetting, applications- take eyewitness to scene- cues
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Negative eval for retrieval failure
Encoding specificity principle can't be tested, Baddeley(1997) argues context effects are not strong- contexts must be very different- not ecologically valid. Godden&Baddeley did study w/recognition not recall and no context effect. orig-40%lower
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Difference between interference and cue-dependency
Interference only when stimulus paired w/2 memories- rare in real life
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What aspect of Eyewitness Testimonies is studied?
The ability of people to remember the details of events they observed.
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What factors affect EWTs?
Misleading Information, Anxiety, Cognitive Interviews, Stages of eyewitness's memory
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What are the stages of eyewitness's memory?
encodes info (may be partial), retained info lost/modified, retrieval- absence/presence of info
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What is misleading info?
Incorrect info given to witness after the event
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What are the two types?
Leading questions, post-event discussion
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What is a leading question?
A question which because of how its worded, suggests a certain answer.
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Leading question study
LOFTUS&PALMER(1974)- 45 students watched 7 films of car accidents, given a questionnaire-asked about spped of car when they hit/contacted/bumped/collided/smashed. Findings-av.speed changed depending on verb. contacted-31.8mph smashed-40.8mph
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What is the response bias explanation?
Leading questions don't change actual memories- just how you choose to answer
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Study to disprove response bias explanation
Loftus&Palmer-150 students watched film of crash. 50 got smashed,50 got hit, 50control-not asked. Week later- asked if they recalled broken glass. FINDINGS- 'smashed' ppts more likely to say yes- changed memory
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What is post event discussion
When witnesses dicuss the event so memories become contaminated w/other's memories.
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Study of post event discussion
Gabbert et al(2003)-Ppts in pairs- each watched video from diff perspectives- both saw diff things- discussed. then recall test. FINDINGS- 71% recalled things their pair said vs 0% of control group- go along w/other- memory conformity
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Misleading info positive eval
real life application- police interviews, legal justice system, ecologically valid
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negative eval
artificial tasks- lack stress/distractions. individual differences-younger people more accurate. demand characteristics- zaragosa&mccloskey(1989)- people say yes to not let researcher down
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Individual differences supporting study
Anastasi&Rhodes (2006)- 18-26y/os & 35 -45y/os more accurate than 55-78y/os. BUT all groups more accurate when identifying own age group- OWN AGE BIAS
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What are the negative effects of anxiety on EWTs?
creates physiological arousal- stops us encoding important cues.
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What is the weapon focus effect?
anxiety of seeing weapon makes us focus all attention on it and nothing else
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Study of negative effects of anxiety
Johnson&Scott(1976)-2 conditions:low anxiety&high anxiety-ppts told doing study- in waiting room: hear man arguing. low anx: men leave w/pen&grease on hands. high anx: hear smashing glass-leaves w/knife w/blood. Then had to pick man out of 50 photos
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low anxiety: chose correct guy 49% of time. high anxiety: 33%
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What are the postitve effects of anxiety on EWTs?
increased awareness- more cues encoded
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Study for positive effects
Yuille & Cutshall(1986)-Field Study. Real life shooting-Canada-1 death. 13 witnesses took part in study, 4-5 months after. Interviews compared to police ones. Rated their stress /7. results- not much change, more stressed=more accurate. 88%vs75%
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Why can it have good and bad effects?
Yerkes-Dodson Law- Curve graph- optimal stress
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Eval of anxiety effect
1-weapon focus may not be relevant: Pickel(1998)-showed ppts vid of hairdressers w/unusual items(gun,raw chicken) and another w/ normal items. FINDINGS-recall worse w/unusual vids for both gun&chicken- could just be weirdness
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Eval of anxiety effect
2- field studies lack control: studies should be done straight after event or extraneous variables may affect. 3-ethical issues- ppts must experience anxiety for studies-psychological harm
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What is a cognitive interview?
method of interviewing eyewitnesses to him them recall more info
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4 stages (COPE)
reinstate Context, reverse the Order, change Perspective, report Everything
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What is the enhanced cognitive interview? Who made it?
Fisher (1987)- added additional elements to focus on the social dynamics: distractions 2.know when to make eyecontact 3.tell them to speak slow 4.ask open qs 5. actively listen
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Cognitive Interview positive eval
Milne&Bull (2002)- just using report everything&reinstate context more effective - just 2 elements better than others- credible. Kohnken et al(1999) meta analysis-50 studies- CI consistently gave more accurate info
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Negative eval
Milne&bull- some elements arn't useful. also: 81% more acc info but 61% more inacc. CI- doesn't work w/kids, interviewers must be trained, time consuming, variations are used- not as effective.
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Biological approach to treating OCD-4 things
Drug Therapy, SSRIs, combining SSRIs w/other treatment, alternatives to SSRIs
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Drug Therapy assumption
assumes there's a chemical imbalance in the brain- corrected by drugs that increase or decrease the level of neurotransmitters
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Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors- standard medical treatment. prevents re-absorption of serotonin and so increases levels of it in synapse.
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combining SSRIs w/other treatment
Used along side CBT-reduces patient's symptoms so they can engage
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alternatives to SSRIs
If SSRI not effective after 3-4months either increased, or combined with w/another drug e.gTRICYCLICS
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Who created the Multi-Store Model of Memory? When?


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