What is sociology? (recap)
Focuses on the relationship between society (its organisations and structures) and the social behaviour and actions of the people living in that society.
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Top Down Approach.
Considering how people's lives are influenced and shaped by cultures, structures and social processes.
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Bottom Up Approach.
Considering how individuals help to shape the social institutions and ideas prevalent in society.
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Sociological Perspectives.
Sociological perspectives are ways of seeing and interpreting the social world. Interested to see how individuals agree (consensus) to the social norms and conventions and to see at what point they disagree (conflict).
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Sociological Perspectives cont.
See how the individual (agent) is influenced by society (structure) and the degree of agency they have in making decisions. A variety of perspectives to explain society which are functionalism,marxism,symbolic interactionism and social action theory.
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Developed popularity during the 1950s, a stable and prosperous period in western history. Emphasises that everything in society has a function. Also known as 'Consensus theory': the idea that society is organised and stabl, meeting everyones needs.
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Functionalism cont.
Efficiency and stability (social order) as two concepts in functionalsim which help form a common culture.. Focused on harmony and social consensus in society developed from shared values and beliefs.
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Emile Durkheim (1858-1917).
Collective Consciousness/ The Conscience Collective - The idea of a shared system of values. If we are outside this, it results in anomie-normlessness. Differentiation- how societies can change and adapt, as they become more specialised.
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Functionalist Social Theory.
View society as a social system of interconnected parts, each part has a function, working together so the whole can function. Work in harmony to allow society to function effectively. Society has institutions-families, schools, police, legal system.
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Division of Labour.
Key concept for Durkheim for enabling society to function. Spseration of tasks in any economic system, allowing participants to specialise- increasing efficiency. Create a value consensus of shared common goals. Contributes to Collective Conscience.
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Social Order and Sanction use.
If social order is not maintained then society will break down. Some conflict can be useful if it acts as a pressure valve, however too much conflict is dysfunctional. So need political system, legal system, police and military to maintain control.
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Talcott Parsons (1902-1979).
Developed Durkheims work. 4 distinct factors needed for society to survive and thrive. Functional pre-requisits: Adaptation, Goal attainment, Integration, Latency (pattern maintenance). AGIL Paradigm.
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AGIL Paradigm.
Adaptation- Used to adapt and control environment, stable economy. Goal Attainment- Individual goals are shared across society. Integration- Society needs to be cohesive, so legal systems make sure there isnt any deviance.Latency-Pattern maintenance.
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The Sick Role (Parsons 1951).
One of the first to challenge the biological dimensions of sickness and identify the social aspects of ill health. Ill health threatens the efficiency of society, so the 'Sick Role' showed individuals expected pattern of behaviour when ill.
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The Sick Role cont.
Contributes to maintenance of the social system. Sick Role regulates behaviour and provides acceptable boundries.Sanctioned Deviance-sick person is not a productive/functional member of society so needs to be policed by medical/nursing professionals.
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Sick Role- How to behave when you are sick- Rights.
The sick person is exempt from the responsibility for their sickness. The sick person can legitimately withdraw from their normal responsibilities.
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Sick Role- How to behave when you are sick- Obligations.
The sick person must seek medical attention, have their sickness diagnosed and recorded. The sick person is under obligation to get better as quickly as possible.
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Obligations of the health care professionals- Obligations.
Must be objective and remain detached, not imposing own values. Must not act in self interest but in interests of patient. Must be knowledgeable/ technically competant.
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Obligations of the health care professionals- Rights.
Treated as professionals/ have degree of autonomy. Given right to examine patient intimately if necessary, prescribe treatment and exercise professional authority.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Top Down Approach.


Considering how people's lives are influenced and shaped by cultures, structures and social processes.

Card 3


Bottom Up Approach.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Sociological Perspectives.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Sociological Perspectives cont.


Preview of the front of card 5
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