Memory

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  • Created by: Kim_Hurn
  • Created on: 05-04-18 22:39
What is Coding?
The format information is stored.
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What is Capacity?
Amount of information that can be held.
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What is Duration?
Length of time information can be held.
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What is the Sensory Register?
Contains two main stores called iconic memory (visual) and echoic memory (sound).
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What is the Capacity of Short-Term Memory?
7 +/- 2.
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How is Short-Term Memory Coded?
Acoustically.
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What is the Duration of Short-Term Memory?
About 30 seconds, unless rehearsed.
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What is Maintenance Rehearsal?
When we repeat material to ourselves over and over.
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What is the Capacity of Long-Term Memory?
Unlimited.
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What is the Duration of Long-Term Memory?
A long duration of time.
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How is Long-Term Memory Coded?
Semantically.
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When we want to recall material from the LTM it has to be transferred back into the...
STM
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What are the 3 types of Long-Term Memory?
Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory and Procedural Memory.
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What is Episodic Memory?
The ability to recall events which are 'time stamped' so you remember when they happen.
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What is Semantic Memory?
Knowledge of the world, including facts we don't usually remember learning.
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What is Procedural Memory?
Actions and Skills which we can recall without conscious awareness but may find it difficult explaining to someone else.
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What is the Central Executive?
Co-ordinates activities for the three sub-systems, potentially an attentional process that monitors incoming data then allocates systems to tasks.
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What is the Phonological Loop?
Processes sound, dealing with auditory information and preserves the order it arrives in.
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What is the Phonological Store?
Stores the words you hear.
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What is the Articulatory Process?
Allows maintenance rehearsal.
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What is the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad?
Processes visual and spatial information, often called our 'inner eye'.
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What is the Visual Cache?
Stores visual data.
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What is the Inner Scribe?
Records arrangements of objects.
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What is the Episodic Buffer?
Brings material together into a single memory rather than separate strands.
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What is the definition of Interference?
Forgetting as one memory blocks another causing memories to be distorted or forgotten.
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What is Proactive Interference?
When an older memory interferes with a newer one.
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What is Retroactive Interference?
When a newer memory interferes with an older one.
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What is the Encoding Specificity Principle?
Where the cue has to be present at encoding and at retrieval.
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What is Eye-Witness Testimony?
Ability of people to remember the details of events, which they observed.
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What is Misleading Information?
Incorrect information given to the eyewitness after the event.
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What is a Leading Question?
A question that could be phrased a way to suggest a certain answer.
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What is Post-Event Discussion?
Where a witness discusses what they have seen with other people.
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What is one Individual Difference?
Older people are less accurate than younger people when giving eyewitness reports.
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How does Anxiety have a Negative Effect on recall in Johnson and Scott's Study?
Weapon focus effect.
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How does Anxiety have a Positive Effect on recall in Yuille and Cutshall's Study?
Higher levels of stress were more accurate.
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What are the 4 Stages of Cognitive Interview?
1. Report Everything, 2. Reinstate the Context, 3. Reverse the Order, 4. Change Perspective.
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What is 'Report Everything'?
Eyewitnesses are encouraged to include every detail of the event, even if it may seem irrelevant these details may trigger other memories.
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What is 'Reinstate the Context'?
Eyewitnesses return to the original scene 'in their mind' and imagine the environment.
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What is 'Reverse the Order'?
Eyewitnesses recall events in a different chronological order to original sequence, preventing dishonesty.
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What is 'Change Perspective'?
Eyewitnesses recall from other peoples perspectives, disrupting expectations and schemas.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Capacity?

Back

Amount of information that can be held.

Card 3

Front

What is Duration?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is the Sensory Register?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the Capacity of Short-Term Memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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