Memory

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What is short term memory?
A temp place for storing info received through the senses where it receives little processing
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What is encoding?
How sensory input is represented by the memory system
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What is capacity?
How much info can be stored 7+2
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What is duration?
How long the info can be held in storage
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Who researched into the capacity of the STM?
Jacobs
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What did Jacob's research consist of? And what was his findings?
The digit span technique. He found that on average the mean span that people could recall about 7 digits but 9 letters
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What was Peterson and Peterson's aim?
to test how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented
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What was the procedure of Peterson and Peterson's experiment?
1. Pps were briefly shown a constant trigram 2. Pps were asked to count backwards in threes from a specified number 3. After each 3 intervals pps were asked to recall the original trigram 4. This was repeated using different trigrams
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What were the findings of Peterson and Peterson's experiments?
Pps were able to recall 80% of trigrams after a second interval, progressively fewer trigrams were recalled as the time intervals lengthened. After 18 secs fewer than 10% of the trigrams were recalled correctly
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What is the conclusion to Peterson and Peterson's experiment?
If rehearsal is prevented, info vanishes rapidly from STM and that decay is the mechanism for forgetting
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What was Conrad's experiment?
He presented pps with a visual list of 6 constanants that the had to write down.
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What were the findings to Conrad's experiment?
Recall errors were mainly related to a letters sound, not its visual appearance
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What is the conclusion to Conrad's experiment?
These acoustic errors suggest that: 1. Visually presented info must have been recorded acoustically 2. STM is primarily encoded acoustically
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What are the stages which happens to a new memory?
ENCODING -> STORAGE -> RETRIEVAL
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What is the multi store model of memory?
SENSORY MEMORY -> STM -> LTM
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How is sensory memory turned into STM?
Encoding
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How is STM turned into LTM?
Encoding
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How is LTM turned into STM?
Retrieval
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What would happen to sensory memory that hasn't been encoded?
Info would fade
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How is info lost in the STM?
Displacement
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How is info kept in STM?
Rehearsal
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What are the 3 types of sensory memory?
Haptic, Iconic, Echoic
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Who suggested the MSM?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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What is haptic memory?
Haptic memory is a form of sensory memory that refers to the recollection of data acquired by touch after a stimulus has been presented.
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What is echoic memory?
Echoic memory is one of the sensory memory registers; a component of sensory memory (SM) that is specific to retaining auditory information.
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What is iconic memory?
Iconic memory is part of the visual memory system which also includes long-term memory and visual short-term memory. It is a type of sensory memory that lasts very briefly before quickly fading
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Sperling studied what and how?
Capacity and created the partial report technique. He trained pp's to distinguish between 3 tones and he then exposed a grid of letters, when the grid disappeared one of the tones followed which corresponded to a row of 4 letters
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What did Sperling find?
If there was a delay between presentation of grid and sound of tone Sperling found that more and more info was lost
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What was Conrad's experiment?
Presented pp's with a visual list of six of constants that they then had to write down.
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Where were recall errors mainly made?
With the sound of the letter not the appearance
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What do the acoustic confusion errors suggest in Conrad's experiment?
Visually presented info must have been encoded acoustically and that STM is primarily encoded on the basis of sound
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What did Miller find out about the capacity of the STM?
7 plus or minus 2
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What did Peterson and Peterson find the capacity was for STM?
20 seconds
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What was Baddeley's experiment?
He was studying long term memory. He gave lists of words to 4 groups to remember: 1. acoustically similar (e.g cat, cab) 2. Acoustically dissimilar (e.g pit few) 3. Semantically similar (e.g large, big) 4. Semantically dissimilar (e.g huge, hot)
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What did Baddeley's experiment show about how LTM is encoded?
That it is coded semantically.
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What is flashbulb memory?
A detailed and vivid memory of an event after one occasion and lasts a lifetime
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What are Tulvin's 3 memory types?
1. Episodic 2. Semantic 3. Procedural
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What is episodic memory?
Personal memories of events. An explicit type of memory that contains details, emotions and context
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What is semantic memory?
Memory for facts and knowledge. A type of explicit memory which usually starts off as episodic but loses its association with emotions
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What is procedural memory?
A type of implicit memory where you know how to do things. They are automatic
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What is some evidence to support Tulving's 3 memory types?
Clive - his episodic memory was impaired however semantic and procedural were intact.
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What is the working memory model?
central executive - (Slave systems) 1. Phonological loop 2. Episodic buffer 3. Visuospatial sketchpad - LTM
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What is the central executive?
It has limited capacity and is where data arrives from the senses but it cannot hold it for long. It then determines how resources are allocated.
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What is the first slave system? e.g phonological loop?
It has a limited capacity and deals with auditory info.
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The phonological loop is further divided into 2 other things:
1. Phonological store: holds words heard 2. Articulatory process: holds words heard, seen and silently repeated which is maintenance rehearsal
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What is the 2nd slave system? e.g visuospatial sketchpad?
Where visual - (what things look like) and spatial - (the relationship between things) info is stored. It has a limited capacity of 3-4 images
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What are the 2 subdivisions to the visuospatial sketchpad?
1. Visuo - cache (store) 2. Inner scribe - for spatial relations
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What is the 3rd slave system? e.g episodic buffer?
It is more of a general store The episodic buffer acts as a 'backup' store which communicates with both long term memory and the components of working memory.
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What are the two explanations for forgetting?
interference and retrieval failure
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What is interference?
When 1 memory disturbs the ability to recall another
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What are the two types of interference?
1. Proactive - old affects new 2. Retroactive - new affects old
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What are the 3 types of retrieval failures?
(CUE/CONTEXT/STATE)-dependant forgetting
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What is cue-dependant forgetting?
Explains forgetting in LTM as retrieval failure, it says that when we learn info we encode the context in which we learn the info and the mental state we are in, which act as cues
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What is context-dependant forgetting?
When the environment during recall is different from the environment you were in when you were learning
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What is state dependant forgetting?
Occurs when your mood or physiological state during recall is different to that when you were learning
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What did Loftus and Palmer study?
Eye witness testimony - car crash, more violent words and broken glass
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What are the 3 factors affecting eyewitness testimony?
Misleading info, post event discussion and anxiety
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What is the cognitive interview?
A police technique for interviewing witnesses. The steps are: 1. Report everything 2. Reinstatement of context (establishing cues) 3. Change order 4. Change perspective
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Card 2

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What is encoding?

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How sensory input is represented by the memory system

Card 3

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What is capacity?

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Card 4

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What is duration?

Back

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Card 5

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Who researched into the capacity of the STM?

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