Memory

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  • Created by: ishayaqub
  • Created on: 07-05-16 12:22
What is encoding?
Changing information so that it can be stored
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What is storage?
Holding information in the memory system
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What is retrieval?
Recovering information from storage
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What is the multi-store model?
The idea that memory passes through a series of memory stores
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What is the sensory store?
Holds information received from the senses for a very short period of time
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What is the short-term store?
Holds approximately seven chunks of information for a limited amount of time
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What is the long-term store?
Holds a vast amount of information for a long period of time
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How long is information kept in the sensory store, short term store and long term store?
Sensory store: less than one second. Short-term store: less than one minute. Long-term store: up to a lifetime
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Describe the method of the Murdock study?
Participants had to learn a list of words presented one at a time, for two seconds per word, and then recall the words in any order.
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Give one evaluation for the Murdock study?
The memory task participants were asked to do aren't the type of memory tasks that people usually do so it lacks ecological validity.
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What are practical applications of research into the multi-store model?
The short-term stores capacity is seven chunks of information so that is why car reg numbers don't go over that. So you have a chance of remembering one if you repeat it over and over again. The same with postcodes.
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What is reconstructive memory?
Altering information so it makes more sense to us
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Describe the method of the Bartlett study?
Participants were asked to read a story called "The War of the Ghosts", which was a Native American legend. Later they were asked to retell the story as accurately as possible. This retelling was repeated several times during the weeks
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Give one evaluation for the Bartlett study?
The story that the participants were asked to read is confusing and not similar to our everyday life experiences.
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What are practical implications of research into reconstructive memory?
It help us understand why two people who are recalling the same event may have completely different versions of the story.
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What is levels of processing?
The depth at which information is thought when trying to learn it.
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What is structural processing?
Thinking about the physical appearance of words when trying to learn
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What is phonetic processing?
Thinking about the sound of the words when being learnt
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What is semantic processing?
Thinking about the meaning of the words to be learnt
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Describe the method of the Craik and Lockhart study?
Participants were presented with a list of words, one at a time, and asked questions about each word which they had to answer "yes" or "no". The questions requires structural, phonetic and semantic processing.
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Give one evaluation of the Craik and Lockhart study?
It doesn't explain why deeper levels of processing helps memory. It also lacks ecological validity because real life memory tasks aren't about learning lists of words
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What are practical applications of research into levels of processing?
Instead of just reading something over and over again to remember it, try reading it once and write it down in your own words as it requires semantic processing.
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What is interference?
Things that we have learnt that make it difficult to recall other information we have learnt
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What is Retroactive interference?
When information we have recently learnt (new) affects our ability to recall previously learnt information (old)
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What is Proactive interference?
When information we have already learnt (old) affects our ability to recall new information
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Describe the method of the Underwood and Postman study?
Participants were divided into two groups: Group A were asked to learn a list of word pairs, they were then asked to learn a second list of word pairs. Group B were only asked to learn the first list of word pairs. Both asked to recall first word pai
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What are practical applications of research into Interference?
It can develop better study habits, for example if you are studying more than one subject in the same day, try to avoid it. Skills learnt in sports, such as learning to play tennis and badminton
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What is context?
The general setting or environment in which activities happen
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What is Anterograde amnesia?
Being unable to learn new information after the brain damage
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What is a hippo-campus?
A brain structure that is crucial for memory loss
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What is Retrograde amnesia?
Loss of memory for events that happened before the brain damage occured
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Describe the method of the Godden and Baddeley study?
Participants were divided into 4 groups.They were given a list of words to recall. Group 1 had to learn underwater, Group 2 had to learn underwater and recall on shore, Group 3 had to learn on the shore, Group 4 had to learn on the shore and recall u
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What are the practical applications of research into context?
It would be better to take exams in the room where information was learnt. Would be easier to revise without music in the background as there will be none in the exam hall
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What is reliability?
The extent to which an eyewitness testimony can be regarded as accurate
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What are leading questions?
A question that hints that a particular type of answer is required
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What is a cognitive interview?
A method of questioning witnesses that involves recreating the context of an event
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Describe the method of the Bruce and Young study?
Psychology lecturers were caught on security cameras at the entrance of a building. Participants were asked to identify the faces seen on the security camera tape from a series of high-quality photographs
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What is a stereotype?
An oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have of others
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Describe the method of the Cohen study?
Participants were shown a video of a man and a women eating in a restaurant. Half of the participants were told the woman was a librarian and the others were told she was a waitress.Later all the participants were asked to describe the her behaviour.
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What are practical applications into research of Eyewitness Testimonies?
Bruce and Young - Identity parades alone might have limited use when trying to find a criminal, especially when witnesses are asked to identify a stranger
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is storage?

Back

Holding information in the memory system

Card 3

Front

What is retrieval?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the multi-store model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the sensory store?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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